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Full text of "Documentation, analysis, and interpretation of the interior finishes of Frank Lloyd Wright's Heller House"



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UNIVERSITYT 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

UBKARIE5 




DOCUMENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF 
THE INTERIOR FINISHES OF FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT'S HELLER HOUSE 



Zana Cecelia Wolf 



A THESIS 



in 



Historic Preservation 



Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in 
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE 
2000 




Su|3(ervisbr Reader / 

Franl^e^^Matero Gail Caskey Winkler, PhD 

Associate Professor of Architecture Lecturer in Historic Preservation 



GrWu^ Group Chair 

Frank G. Matero 

Associate Professor of Architecture 



h^cAasJA/A/ 02,(^000 IW?^'^ 



UNIVERSITY 
PEN^i3vi\/AN!A 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

My sincere thanks and appreciation go to the following people: 

Judith Bromley and Serafino Garella, for their enthusiasm and interest, and for 

making this project possible. 

Frank G. Matero, my advisor, for his thoughtful advice and direction. 

Gail Caskey Winkler, my reader, for her careful suggestions and ideas. 

Robert Furhoff, for his unending generosity and valuable work in the field. 

Rynta Fourie, for her advice, helpful instruction, and wonderful sense of humor. 

Beth Price, for her time and interest in this project. 

Suzanne Hyndman, for her warmth and encouragement. 

To my classmates, especially Deb Lavoie, Nuanlak Watsantachad, and Claudia 

Cancino, for making this an enjoyable year. 

To Robert Hassett, for his understanding and support. 

To Tiffany Sebastian and Nicole McPike, for their unending encouragement. 

To my loving family, for their constant support, encouragement, and welcome 

advice. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Title Page 
Acknowledgements 
Table of Contents 
List of Figures 
List of Tables 
Introduction 
Chapter 1 



Frank Lloyd Wright and the Heller House 

1 . 1 Description of the Heller House 

1 .2 History of the Heller House 

1.2.1 Isidore and Ida Heller 

1.2.2 Chain of Title 
Frank Lloyd Wright in the 1890s 



1.3 
1.4 



Frank Lloyd Wright and Contemporary Interior 
Design 



Chapter 2 



Finish Context and History 

2.1 Finishes Analyses of Contemporary Frank Lloyd 



2.2 

2.3 



Wright Interiors 

Interior Design literature of the Heller House 
Period 



Finish Literature of the Heller House Period 

2.3.1 Paint 

2.3.2 Wood finishes 

2.3.3 Sand-float plaster 
Chapter 3 Site Investigation Techniques 

3.1 Archival and Site Documentation 

3.2 Finish Investigation and Sampling 
Chapter 4 Analytical Techniques 

4.1 Paint Layer Documentation 

4.2 Original Finish Color Investigation 



I 

ii 

iii 

vi 

ix 

1 

3 

3 

24 

24 

25 

26 

28 
30 

30 

40 
45 
45 
54 
55 
57 
61 
63 
67 
67 
71 



4.2.1 Color Matching 74 

4.3 Finish Classification 78 

4.3.1 Solubility Testing for Binding 

Media Analysis 81 

4.3.2 Fluorescence Microscopy for 

Binding Media Analysis 83 

4.3.3 Infrared Spectroscopy for Binding 

Media Analysis 86 

4.4 Pigment Identification 94 

4.4.1 Visible and Polarizing Light 

Microscopy 94 

4.4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy for Pigment 
Identification 98 

4.4.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy for 

Pigment Identification 103 

4.5 Plaster Classification 111 

4.5.1 Visual Description 113 

4.5.2 Particle Size Analysis 114 

4.5.3 X-Ray Diffraction for Plaster 
Characterization 116 

Chapters Conclusions I^Q 

5.1 Summary of Interior Finishes 119 

5.1.1 Original Plaster 119 

5.1.2 Original Wall Paints 119 

5.1.3 Original Wall Pigments 121 

5.1.4 Wood Finishes 121 

5.1.5 Interior Color Schemes 122 

5.1.6 Later Finish Layers 124 

5.1.7 Wright's Intentions 124 

5.2 Recommendations for Restoration 125 

5.3 Recommendations for Further Study 126 



Appendices ^^^ 

Appendix A Archival Information 129 

Appendix B Cross-sectional Photomicrographs 137 

Appendix C Pigment Dispersions 170 

Appendix D Scanning Electron Microscopy 174 

Appendix E Stratigraphy Sheets 191 

Bibliography 260 

Index 270 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Chapter 1 Frank Lloyd Wright and the Heller House 

Figure 1.1 The Isidore Heller House, east facade 3 

Figure 1 .2 Entrance to the Heller House, south elevation 5 

Figure 1.3 First floor plan of the Heller House 7 

Figure 1 .4 Second floor plan of the Heller House 8 

Figure 1 .5 Third floor plan of the Heller House 9 

Figure 1 .6 Colonette on the third story loggia 10 

Figure 1 .7 Detail of the maiden from the Heller House frieze 1 1 

Figure 1.8 North Side of the living room 12 

Figure 1.9 Historic photograph of the hall 14 

Figure 1.10 Dining room, north side 14 

Figure 1.11 Drawing and details of the Heller House 17 

Figure 1.12 Heller House, north facade 18 

Figure 1.13 Art glass v\/indow in the stair hall 19 

Figure 1.14 Bedroom art glass windov\/ 20 

Figure 1.15 Restored fireplace in master bedroom 21 

Figure 1.16 Master bedroom before fireplace restoration 21 

Figure 1.17 Attic play room, north elevation 22 

Chapter 2 Finish Context and History 

Figure 2.1 Parson's Washable Distemper Paint Card, 1908 51 

Figure 2.1 Johnston's Patent Kalsomine and Fresco Paints, 1890 52 

Figure 2.3 Adams and Elting Co. Hygienic Kalsomine, 1909 53 

Figure 2.4 Adams and Elting Co. Hygienic Kalsomine, 1909 53 

Chapter 3 Site Investigation Techniques 

Figure 3.1 Heller House first floor plan with room numbers 58 

Figure 3.2 Heller House second floor plan with room numbers 59 

Figure 3.3 Heller House third floor plan with room numbers 60 

Figure 3.4 Room description sheet used during site visit 61 

Figure 3.5 Photo log used during site visit 62 



Chapter 4 Analytical Techniques 

Figure 4.1 Stratigraphy sheet used during microscopic examination 69 

Figure 4.2 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.05-3 70 

Figure 4.3 Photograph of the living room 72 

Figure 4.4 Photograph of the dining room alcove 72 

Figure 4.5 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-1 74 

Figure 4.6 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.03-2 79 

Figure 4.7 Photomicrograph of surface of sample 1 .04-1 79 

Figure 4.8 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.05-4 80 

Figure 4.9 Water solubility of sample 1 .03-2, 1 .04-1 ,1.12-1 82 

Figure 4.10 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-4 85 

Figure 4.1 1 FTIR spectra of sample 1 .04-1 indicating protein 89 

Figure 4.12 FTIR spectra of sample 1.03-2 indicating starch 90 

Figure4.13 FTIR spectra of sample 1.12-1 indicating gum 91 

Figure 4.14 FTIR spectra of sample 1.14-1 indicating wax 92 

Figure 4.15 FTIR spectra of sample 1 .08-3 indicating resin 93 

Figure 4.16 Photomicrograph of reflective material from sample 1.04-1 96 

Figure 4.17 Photomicrograph of McCrone reference quartz sample 96 

Figure 4.18 Photomicrograph of yellow pigments from sample 1.03-2 97 

Figure 4.1 9 Photomicrograph of reference sample of yellow ochre 97 

Figure 4.20 FTIR spectra of pigments in sample 1 .04-1 99 

Figure 4.21 FTIR spectra of sample 1.04-1 indicating quartz 100 

Figure 4.22 FTIR spectra of sample 1.03-2 indicating goethite 101 

Figure 4.23 FTIR spectra of sample 1.12 indicating barite 102 

Figure 4.24 EDS spectra of metallic layer in sample 1 .04-6 1 04 

Figure 4.25 EDS spectra of metallic layer in sample 1.12-5 105 

Figure 4.26 EDS spectra of red paint in sample 1.12-1 1 06 

Figure 4.27 Scanning electron image of metallic layer in sample 1.04-6 108 

Figure 4.28 EDS spectra of metallic layer in sample 1 .04-6 1 09 

Figure 4.29 Electron dot map of sample 1 .04-6 1 1 



Figure 4.30 Photomicrograph of sand float plaster 111 

Figure 4.31 Photomicrograph of scratch coat and finish coat 112 

Figure 4.32 Photomicrograph of finish plaster coat 112 

Figure 4.33 Particle size distribution 115 

Figure 4.34 XRD spectrum of sample 2.06-1 finish coat plaster 117 

Figure4.35 XRD spectrum of sample 1.13-1 plaster binder 118 

Chapter 5 Conclusions 

Figure 5.1 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.12-1 120 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 2.1 Pre-1910 Wright Interior Finishes 39 

Table 3.1 Heller House Finish Sample List 64 

Table 4.1 Heller House Paint Colors 75 

Table 4.2 Solubility testing of Selected Heller House Samples 82 

Table 4.3 Testing for Secondary Fluorescence 86 

Table 4.4 Samples Investigated with FTIR for Binder Identification 87 

Table 4.5 Pigment identification through Sample Dispersion 95 

Table 4.6 Pigment Identification through Electron Dot Mapping 107 

Table 4.7 Plaster Types founding Each Room 113 

Table 4.8 Sieve Analysis 115 



INTRODUCTION 

Frank Lloyd Wright is quite possibly the most widely known and most studied of 
American architects. Though innumerable aspects of Wright's architecture have 
been analyzed and interpreted, interior architectural finishes specified by Wright 
have received significantly less study. It is known that Wright often chose to 
specify all aspects of his designs, including interior furnishings, so it not 
surprising that the finishes he recommended were an equally important 
component of entire commissions. Preservation and restoration of Wright's 
buildings must begin with a sound understanding of his design concepts and the 
realization of his architectural theories. The materials used within these buildings 
are sometimes lost due to their ephemeral nature. Alteration and degradation of 
finishes can be caused by damage from light, soiling, temperature, moisture, and 
biogrowth. Often original finishes have been concealed by later finish layers or 
they have been removed entirely. 

Groups such as the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy have made it their 
mission to protect and preserve Wright-designed buildings. Though many Wright 
buildings have been saved, few have had their original finishes fully documented 
and analyzed. At this stage, it is important to build a database of the interior 
finishes and finishing techniques Wright employed throughout his career. The 
current owners of the Isidore Heller House (completed in 1897), Judith Bromley 



and Serafino Garella, have requested that the interior finishes be investigated 
and interpreted for their property, one of Wright's significant early designs. 

With documentation and analysis, one can identify original and subsequent 
interior finishes of the Heller House, including wall and ceiling paint colors, 
plaster types and composition, and wood finishes. Finish studies also aid in 
providing evidence for chronology of later additions. With this information, the 
original finishes chosen by Wright for the Hellers can be interpreted and put into 
a context within the realm of Frank Lloyd Wright's interior design ideas. They can 
also be interpreted within the context of American architecture and design at the 
turn of the century. 



CHAPTER 1 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT AND THE HELLER HOUSE 




Figure 1.1 Isidore Heller House, East fagade, 

5132 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago. 

Photograph by the author, 1999. 



1.1 Description of the Heller House 



The Heller House, completed in 1897 by Frank Lloyd Wright, is located at 5132 
Woodlawn Avenue on the south side of Chicago. This area is known as Hyde 
Park, and encompasses the campus of the University of Chicago and Wright's 
famous Robie House of 1907. The Heller House is an example of Wright's work 
in the years just after leaving the office of Louis Sullivan. He was only twenty- 
nine when he designed the house and was still at the beginning of his 
architectural design experimentations. 



In the Heller House, Wright designed a house to conform to the restraints of a 
deep but fairly narrow city lot. The majority of the exterior of the house is 
executed in buff and gray Roman brick; the first story is composed of buff-colored 
brick while the second story includes both buff and gray brick. (Figure 1.1.) 
Mortar joints are buff colored in the vertical and gray in the horizontal, 
emphasizing the horizontality of the design. Unique features of the Heller house 
extehor include the third story sculptural frieze of draped female figures by 
Richard Bock, a well-known Chicago sculptor. The figures were modeled after 
Wright's design for the title page of The Eve of St. Agnes which was published in 
1896. The design of the winged Beaux Arts female figures was simplified slightly 
in the translation from the title page to the Heller House frieze, probably due to 
the nature of the material, which was hand-modeled and cast plaster.^ (Figure 
1.7.) It is in this exterior detail that the influence of Louis Sullivan can best be 
seen. 

The House possesses a "monitor" roof, wherein a third story is added above the 
main eaves of the house which is smaller than the other stories and capped with 
its own hipped roof. The main entrance along the south facade is a square- 
headed opening ornamented with Romanesque columns at each side, 
surmounted by a paneled motif that is described as a vaguely Arabic design.^ 



' David A. Hanks, The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979), 
170. Here Hanks incorrectly described the Heller frieze writing that it was of terrra cotta. 
^ Grant Carpenter Manson, Frank Lloyd Wright to1910: the First Golden Age (New York: Van 
Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1958), 171. 

4 



(Figure 2.) Above the entrance is a piazza, embellished with a row of elaborate 
plaster colonettes supporting the deep cornice and the third story.^ (Figure 6.) 




Figure 1.2 Entrance to the Heller House, South elevation. 

The loggia is visible on the second level. 

Photograph by the author, 1999. 

The overall appearance of the house from the street is rather simple and severe 
with its neutral colored bricks, and basic geometries. Upon closer inspection, the 
austere street fagade unfolds with the concentrated elaborate details of the 
Romanesque columns of the entry, the frieze of maidens, and the beautifully 
colonnaded second-story loggia. 



Grant Carpenter Manson, Frank Lloyd Wright to 1910: The First Golden Age (New York: Van 
Nostrand Reinhold, 1958), 76. 



The approach to the house is by a stepped terrace that runs perpendicular to 
Woodlawn Avenue. The entrance, described above, is at 90 degrees to the body 
of the house intersecting it at its midpoint."* The Heller House is an example of 
what is called Wright's "in-line house", in which the living room is situated on one 
side and the dining and service areas are on the other with a stair hall in 
between. Other examples of the "in-line house" Include the McAfee house of 
1894 and the Husser House of 1899.^ ( Figure 1.3.) 

The Heller House plan has also been described as an "I plan" of interlocking 
spaces. The living room has a north-south orientation that crosses the long 
rectangle of the primary east-west axis through the entry hallway to the dining 
room.^ The dining room maintains the east-west orientation but is offset south of 
the primary axis. The space draws one from the entry to the larger living and 
dining quarters.'^ The Heller House interior features a fine example of Frank Lloyd 
Wright's early art glass windows of the totally abstract type in the main stairwell, 
compared to the conventionalized flowers or plants that came later in his window 
designs.^ 



Paul Laseu and James Tice, Frank Lloyd Wright: Between Principle and Form (New York: Van 

Nostrand Reinhold, 1992), 76. 
^Ibid. 

® Henry-Russell Hitchcock, In The Nature of Materials (New York: Da Capo Press, Inc, 1942), 28. 
^ William Allen Storrer, The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A Complete Catalog (Cambridge, 

Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1974), 38. 
^ David Hanks, The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1979), 

54. 

6 




Figure 1.3 First Floor Plan of the Heller House 
Courtesy ofJohn Vinci Architects. 




Figure 1 .4 Second Floor Plan of the Heller House 
Courtesy of John Vinci Architects. 



■f ••)-••;( K* .> 




Figure 1.5 Third Floor Plan of the Heller House 
From the Frank Lloyd Wright Archives. 




Figure 1.6 Colonette on the third story. 
Courtesy of Judith Bromley, 1999. 



10 







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Figure 1.7 Detail of the maiden from the Heller House Frieze. 

Sculpted by Richard Bock, 1897. 

Photograph Courtesy of Judith Bromley, 1998. 



11 



The Heller House Interior was originally trimmed in quarter-sawn oak.^ The 
primary rooms on the first floor - the drawing room, dining room, and hall - have 
oak woodwork that frames the ceiling and wall spaces. The windows on the first 
floor are one-over-one sash finished in a dark green paint on the interior. The 
living room has a brick fireplace framed in oak, and built-in bookcases with 
delicate filigree work on their sides. Wright's original drawing included brass light 
standards that were subsequently removed but the outlines of the bases remain 
on the floor in the living room.^° (Figure 1.8.) 




Figure 1.8 North side of drawing room where fire place and wood bands 
are visible. Photograph by the author, 1999. 



^ See Heller House drawing, figure 1.11. 



Heller House Drawing, Plate from "The Work of Frank Lloyd Wright" Architectural Review 7 
(1905), plate 22. 

12 



The entry vestibule of the house was originally connected to the reception room 
by a door on the west, which was later filled by a large bookcase and mirror. 
Evidence of this alteration includes oak baseboards that do not match the 
original quarter-sawn oak of the rest of the house. This baseboard was placed in 
front of the original threshold between the two rooms. 

The long, broad center hall includes the stairs to the second floor finished with 
closely spaced, oak balustrades. The dining room has a brick fireplace framed in 
oak, with open cabinets on either side and small wood columns above where 
light standards are set. The servants' areas-the pantry, kitchen, and back hall of 
the first floor -are all finished in pine. (Figures 1.9, 1.10.) 

An elevator designed by Wright around 1909 was added off of the servant's 
hallway on the north side of the house." To the east of the elevator, also off of 
the hallway, is a glass and wood-enclosed porch that extends northward on the 
property. It is not known whether the porch, all or some of its parts, is original to 
the house or was a later addition. It is not likely to be original because it does not 
appear in any of Wright's drawings of the house, though it may relate to Wright's 
elevator addition of 1909. (Figure 1.12.) 



Plans at the Frank Lloyd Wright Archives indicate the elevator addition in a different location. 

13 




Figure 1.9 Historic photograph of hail c. 1950. 




Figure 1.10 Dining room north side where fireplace and cabinets 
are visible. Photograph by the author, 1999. 



14 



The main stairway is illuminated by large art glass widows. (Figure 1.13.) The 
second floor includes a long hallway leading to four bedrooms and a sewing 
room. The master bedroom, on the east end of the house, includes a recently 
restored fireplace that was discovered by the current owners during their 
renovation of the adjacent bathroom. (Figures 1.15, 1.16.) This fireplace shares 
the stack with the living room fireplace. There is another fireplace of light buff 
brick located in the southwest bedroom, above the dining room fireplace. 

The third story of the Heller house originally had servant's bedrooms and a 
children's play room and now includes three bedrooms, one bathroom, a kitchen, 
a dining area, and a long room stretching eastward toward Woodlawn Avenue. 
(Figure 1.17.) The dining area was added sometime after the original 
construction and encompasses part of the original play room. The alterations 
were most likely made during the occupation of the Watsons, because their 
parents moved into the third story. Much of the original green paint over rough 
sand-float plaster remains in this story. 

Very little archival information exists for the Heller House. The Frank Lloyd 
Wright Archives contains plans of the Heller House but many have suffered fire 
damage. The only known Wright correspondence relating to the Heller House are 
two brief letters in the collection of the Getty Research Institute Archives, written 
in 1939 and 1949 respectively. There was also a Historic American Building 
Survey done of he Heller House in 1956. The most informative document 

15 



regarding interior finishes, is a drawing of the Heller House published in 
Architectural Record in an article written by Robert Spencer in 1905 entitled, 
"The Work of Frank Lloyd Wright." The living room drawing includes 
specifications for the following interior furnishings and finishes: 



Interior Walls of Rough Sand Finish [,] trimmed in Quartered and 
waxed white oak [J plaster saturated with pure color [,] floors finish 
and furniture of one wood and color throughout [,] Lighting fixtures in 
main rooms wooden standards with globes worked in brass and 
opalescent glass [,] Interior color scheme bronze and dull green^^ 



Armed with this information, the investigation of the Heller House interior 
finishes began. (Figure 1.11.) 



'^ Heller House Drawing, "The Work of Frank Lloyd Wright" Architectural Review 7, 1 905, plate 
22. 

16 




Figure 1.11 Drawing and details of the Heller House by Frank Lloyd Wright. 
From Robert Spencer, "The Work of Frank Lloyd Wright" 1905. 



17 




Figure 1.12 Heller House, north fagade. 
Porch and elevator shaft are visible. Photograph by the author, 1999. 



18 




Figure 1.13 Art glass window in stair hall, north elevation. 
Photograph courtesy of Judith Bromley, 1999. 



19 




Figure 1.14 Bedroom art glass window. 
Photograph courtesy of Judith Bromley, 1999. 



20 




Figure 1.15 Restored Fireplace in master bedroom. 
Photograph by the author, 1999. 




Figure 1.16 Master Bedroom before Fireplace was uncovered and restored. 
Photograph by Judith Bromley, 1996. 



21 




Figure 1.17 Attic play room, north elevation. 

A small area of the original bead board is uncovered. 

Photograph courtesy of Judith Bromley. 



22 



1.2 History of the Heller House 



1.2.1 Isidore and Ida Heller 

In 1897 Isidore Heller commissioned Frank Lloyd Wright to design a house for 
his family to fit a long narrow lot in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood. The 
client, Isidore Heller, was part owner of Wolf, Sayer, and Heller Packer's and 
Butcher's Supplies at 212 Fulton Street, just northwest of Peoria on the northwest 
side of Chicago. ^^ 

Chicago building records in 1897 indicate a permit was issued to Heller for a 
three-story brick dwelling of 26 feet front, 98 feet deep, and 41 feet high on 5130 
to 5132 Woodlawn Avenue. William Adams was the recorded contractor, and the 
estimated cost for the house was $12,000.^'* 

What is known about the Heller family comes from census data and city 
directories. Isidore Heller was born in Austria in 1847. His wife, Ida, was born in 
Wisconsin in 1857. The Hellers had three children. At the time of the 1900 
census, the Hellers had two servants, and in 1910, they had only one.^^ It is 
known that Ida Heller died on October 11, 1909 from heart disease and shock 
resulting from an accidental fall at home.^® Her funeral was at the residence on 



See Figure A.3, A.4, 1901 Ciilcago City Directory, 1904 Chicago City Directory. 
See Figure A.5, Record of building permit for the Heller House. 
See Figure A.8, A.9, Census data from 1900 and 1910. 
See Figure A.6, Death Certificate of Ida Heller. 

23 



Woodlawn Avenue and by 1915, city directories indicated that Isidore Heller later 
resided in Silver Lake.^'^ 

1.2.2 Chain of Title 

in 1895 the Hellers purchased a long narrow lot on Woodlawn Avenue from 
Jonas Hamburger.^^ The house was probably built in 1897, according to 
construction records. In 1906, twenty-five feet south of the lot was sold to him 
making the house lot much larger. 

Following his wife's death, in 1913, Heller sold the house to Francis Bickett who 
within a year sold it to Charles McFarlane. In 1924, the house was acquired by 
Mr. And Mrs. Joseph Mayer who owned it until 1939. In 1939, the house was 
sold again to Wilfred Fox and his wife. After eight years, the Foxes sold the 
Heller house to George Watson in 1948. The Watsons owned the house for 
twenty-five years, which was the longest period of ownership. They eventually 
sold the house to Lewis Bradford in 1972. During their occupancy, the Bradfords 
were responsible for sandblasting the exterior of the house and also removing 
the original kitchen. They probably made the alterations to the third floor and 
may have added the exterior porch. 

In 1977 the Bradfords sold the house to Victor and Danielle Barcilon who 
undertook exterior masonry repairs including tuckpointing and also sold some of 



From the 1915 Chicago City Directory obtained by Judith Bromley. 

24 



the loggia colonettes and the fretwork to various museums and dealers. After 
their ten-year ownership, the Barcilons sold the Heller house to David and 
Catherine Epstein, who in turn sold it to the current owners, Serafino Garella and 
Judith Bromley, in 1995. 

The present owners exhibit a great deal of respect for Wright's design and 
unending curiosity regarding original elements of the house that are missing or 
have been obscured for years. In five years, they have carefully restored a 
bathroom, investigated original paint colors, and restored the master bedroom 
fireplace that had been walled up for many years. 



1.3 Frank Llovd Wright in the 1890s 



After two years of engineering school at the University of Wisconsin, Wright 
moved to Chicago in 1887 and began working in the office of Joseph Lyman 
Silsbee, architect to Wright's uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones. The following year, 
Wright moved to the office of Dankmar Adler (1844-1900) and Louis Sullivan 
(1856-1924), where he remained until 1893. Wright's first obvious influence in the 
designs of the office was in the Charnley House built in 1891. A year later, Wright 
designed the Harlan House, which he considered to be the beginning of his own 



'® Chain of title was obtained from Judith Bromley. 



25 



practice. ^^ The projecting roof line, the cantilevered balcony, and the form of the 
dormer were elements that would become hallmarks of Wright's architecture.^" 

While working for Sullivan, Wright was a frequent visitor to the Chicago World's 
Fair of 1893, where Sullivan's transport pavilion was under construction. Wright 
was exposed to a variety of world architecture including the Japanese Ho-o-den 
wooden temple, which was a replica of a temple in Japan from the Fujiwara 
period, the Turkish pavilion with its great overhanging roof, and photographs of 
Mayan Temples.^^ This early exposure to foreign design may have been a major 
influence upon his creativity. Shortly thereafter, Wright opened his own practice 
after his departure from Sullivan's office for accepting private commissions. 

During the years between 1893 and the early 1900s, Wright experimented with a 
wide range of architectural design types and styles. Before his marriage, he 
shared a home with his mother in Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago. The area 
provided the young architect with an opportunity to create new designs. Chicago, 
center of the Midwest, had enjoyed unprecedented grov\/th in the decades 
following the great fire in 1871. By moving to Oak Park, Wright was in the center 
of a rich enclave of potential clients, many of whom were self-made 
businessmen. Wright's clients, respecting his genius and enjoying his personality, 



^® Donald W. Hoppen, The Seven Ages of Frank Lloyd Wright (Santa Barbara, California: Capra 

Press, 1993), 20. 
^°Hoppen, The Seven Ages of Frank Lloyd Wright, 20. 
^^ Donald W. Hoppen, The Seven Ages of Frank Lloyd Wright, 14. 



26 



often recommended him to their friends and colleagues as an excellent 
architect.^^ Wright enjoyed many commissions in the suburbs of Oak Park and 
nearby River Forest. One need only walk down Forest Avenue in Oak Park to 
experience the variety and experimentation in Wright's commissions during his 
early career. During the first decade of his practice, Wright experimented with 
designs for new houses and methods for remodeling existing houses that 
illustrated innovation and change. ^^ In the Heller House of 1897, Wright was 
approaching his own definitive style, while still borrowing from his earlier 
influences. 

1 .4 Frank Lloyd Wright and Contemporary Interior Design 

Many of Wright's earliest principles of architectural design and ornamentation 
developed out of nineteenth-century reform ideology, broadly termed the Arts 
and Crafts movement in England and America. Wright espoused the movement's 
notions of simplicity, propriety, and honest use of materials.^'* The principles of 
organic beauty influenced architects and craftsmen in Chicago who were 
searching for a style they deemed more appropriate than that of the Beaux Artes, 
a style that captured the dignity of each citizen in a democratic republic. The 
Chicago Arts and Crafts Society was organized on October 22, 1897, with Wright 
as one of the charter members.^^ But Wright differed from his colleagues in his 



Donald W. Hoppen, The Seven Ages of Frank Lloyd Wright, 20. 

' Grant Carpenter Manson, Frank Lloyd Wright to 1910: The First Golden Age (New York: Van 
Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1958), 71. 
' David A. Hanks, The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1979), 

61. 
' Hanks, The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright, 63. 

27 



willingness to abandon the handicraft ideals. He believed that the machine could 
be as appropriate for construction techniques as hand techniques.^^ In Wright's 
opinion, the artist could design simple objects that could be made by the 



machine.^^ 



Although Wright's designs were typically unique to each commission, certain 
characteristic themes in his interiors have been noted. For example, in his own 
house in Oak Park (1889), the openings between rooms lacked traditional 
framing details, and were placed beneath a continuous string coarse so that 
sections of the wall read as panels, or screens.^« Wright's house also illustrated 
his use of perimeter axes to enhance the sense of informality he sought within 
residential interiors. These perimeter axes were defined by such things as focal 
elements within the interiors, fumiture arrangements, or openings between major 
rooms. Wright believed that the traditional, formal, central axis could not achieve 
the sense of informality that he desired in residential interiors.^^ By the 1920s, he 
employed contrasting textures of materials to define certain select areas in his 
interiors.^" 



2' Ibid., 64. 

- 'D^vid'c. De Long, 'The Place of Objects: Frank Lloyd Wrighrs Attitude Toward s Interior 
Design and the Decorative Arts", Frank Lloyd Wright Newsletter, 2, no. 3, (1979). 13. 



Ibid. 
^° De Long, Frank Lloyd Wright Newsletter, 15. 

28 



Early on, Wright used wood trim and strips to outline walls and ceilings and to 
integrate walls and ceiling with window and door openings; the trim often 
coordinated with the wood and finishes selected for the furniture. 

As for Wright's color choices, it is generally - and somewhat accurately - believed 
that browns and other autumnal tones were often used in his early interiors. 
Some scholars have noted that other colors palettes were not entirely excluded.^^ 
In his later work, more chromatically intense colors were introduced as in the 
lavender and mauve used in the Hollyhock house in California of 1919-1921 and 
the strong reds as in Fallingwater of 1935-1937 and the Hanna House of 1937.^^ 

Wright considered all parts of an interior, including the furniture and decorative 
arts as contributing elements. As each component in an interior is part of a larger 
whole, so is each room an interrelated part of the whole building. Therefore when 
examining a specific Wright design, the original intentions and schemes must be 
considered in their entirety. 



^^De Long, The Frank Lloyd Wright Newsletter, 15. 
'' Ibid. 

29 



CHAPTER 2 FINISH CONTEXT AND HISTORY 

2.1 Finishes Analyses of Contemporary Frank Lloyd Wright Interiors 

In order to better understand and interpret the interior finishes of the Heller 
House, research was conducted on existing studies of other Frank Lloyd Wright 
designs of the same period. 

The analysis of architectural finishes as an academic study began in the 1970s. 
Since then, the techniques employed in analysis have become quite advanced. 
Of Wright's many surviving buildings, only a small number have been studied for 
their interior finishes and very few of these have been formally reported or 
documented. Furthermore, the techniques and depths of analysis have varied 
greatly. Nevertheless, it is possible to summarize general characteristics 
described in the studies to gather a sense of the materials and colors that Wright 
used during his early design years. With the survey of interior finish reports of 
Wright housed constructed before 1910, it is possible to gain insight into Wright's 
aesthetic and technical sensibilities during the Heller House era. 

Robert Furhoff of Chicago has investigated and analyzed the interior finishes of 
many Frank Lloyd Wright buildings, including a preliminary study of the Heller 
House. Furhoffs reports on other Wright houses from the time period of the 
Heller house were consulted for comparison.^ 



Robert Furhoff has generously supplied his Frank Lloyd Wright finish reports for this research. 

30 



Furhoff described his general investigative techniques as follows: during a site 
investigation of original finishes, Furhoff selectively extracted representative 
finish samples from protected areas. He examined them on site and under a 
stereomicroscope. Plaster, paint, and wood finish types were described and often 
color matching, photomicrography, solubility tests for finish characterization, and 
a finished report was the result. Colors were matched using the Munsell Color 
System that identifies color in terms of hue, value and chroma (h v/c). 

F.B. Henderson House^ 

One of the earliest Wright interiors that Furhoff studied is the F.B. Henderson 
House (1901), located in Elmhurst, Ohio. The paint analysis of this house was 
completed by Furhoff in 1989. The first floor of the Henderson house had a 
textured sand-float plaster wall finish. On the plaster ceiling and frieze, there was 
a white, semi-gloss, semi-opaque sealer, over which a thin layer of paint was 
applied. 

The original paint finish was visually determined to be casein. Furhoff 
characterized the paint as casein because of it semi-opaque appearance, its 
resistance to water, and its efflorescence with application of acid. Some of the 
white substrate was exposed on the ceiling and frieze in the application of the 
finish, so the visual effect of the interior finish was the combination of paint and 



From Robert Furhoff s report of 1989 on the F. B. Henderson House. 

31 



exposed plaster. There was no sealer on the walls In the Henderson House and 
the application of the paint was solid and opaque. Furhoff described the original 
paint color in the first floor as varying from light to medium yellow, depending on 
the translucence of the sand-float plaster. 

Likewise, no sealer was used In the library and dining rooms of the Henderson 
House and the original finish was determined to be calcimine. The application 
was solid and opaque and the color was a moderate orange, matched to Munsell 
5 YR/5 7.5/7. The woodwork was not studied during this investigation. 

Ward W. Willits House^ 

In the Ward Willits house, (1902-1903) Highland Park, Illinois, all surfaces had a 
sand-float texture. The ceilings, soffits, and the living room frieze were painted in 
what Furhoff described as a strong yellow paint (Munsell 2.5 Y 7/9) with a brown 
glaze coat. The stair hall and living room walls were originally a brownish-orange 
color, (Munsell 7.5 YR 5.5/4.5) and the dining room walls were a green with a 
brown glaze (Munsell 5 GY 5.5/5). The ceiling of the stair hall was not glazed 
and had a "dead flat finish", described as calcimine, and its color was a strong 
yellow (Munsell 3.75 Y 7/10). The dining room frieze was a rich orange-brown 
glaze over plaster. The glaze was a strong brown varying from Munsell color 7.5 
YR 4/6 to 7.5 YR 4/8. Furhoff noted that the glaze was soluble in alcohol and 



From Robert Furhoff s report of 1994 on the Ward W. Willits House. 

32 



could have been pure or pigmented orange shellac. Investigation of original 
woodv\/ork finish was not done during this analysis. 

Charles A. Brown House'' 

In the Charles A. Brown House (1907), Evanston, Illinois, all plaster surfaces had 
a coarse, sand-textured finish, were primed with one coat of sealer, and the finish 
was one coat of calcimine paint. The paint was determined to be calcimine due to 
its very flat finish and it solubility in water. The original finish was opaque with 
100% surface coverage. Furhoff remarked that in the second floor, the treatment 
was more typical of nineteenth century decoration when chambers were 
commonly colored for the purpose of room identification. Here there was a blue 
room, a pink room, a gray room, and a yellow room. 

The Beachey House^ 

The Beachey house (1907), Oak Park, Illinois, also had a sand-float plaster 
surface, but the original finish was found to have two-tone coloring. Since more 
pigmentation collected in the depressions of the surface, these areas had a 
slightly darker color with thinner pigmentation on the raised surfaces. All original 
finishes were described as "flat". 



' From Robert Furhoff s report of 1990 on the Charles A. Brown House, Evanston, Illinois. 
^From Robert Furhoff s report of 1997 on the Beachey House, Oak Park, Illinois. 



33 



On the first floor, the ceiling and wall frieze were painted in a pale grayish-yellow 
(Munsell color 1.25 8/3.5). The entrance hall walls were finished in a strong 
yellowish brown (between Munsell color 10 YR 4/5 and 10 YR 5/5). The living 
room walls were a moderate olive (Munsell color 7.5 Y 4.5/2.5 to 7.5 Y 4.5/4.5). 
The dining room walls were a light yellowish brown (Munsell color 10 YR 7.5/6) 

George C. Stockman Residence® 

In the Dr. George C. Stockman Residence (1908), Mason City, Iowa, the walls 
originally had a thin coating of distemper paint over sand-float plaster. The 
bathroom, kitchen, and veranda originally had an oil base coat. 

Here Furhoff found that the entry, living room, dining room and stair hall were 
originally finished in a light-yellowish-pink distemper paint (Munsell 1.25 YR 8.5 / 
3/5). The kitchen and passage were finished with a sand-float plaster ceiling and 
smooth-finished walls, both in a yellowish-gray. 

Meyer May House^ 

In the Meyer May House (1908), Grand Rapids, Michigan, the original wood 
finish was clear varnish on natural unstained oak with a filled grain similar in color 
to the natural wood. All of the plaster surfaces were again a sand-float plaster. 
The original finish was a very thin application of flat oil paint and all of the wall 



^ From Robert Furhoff s report of 1992 on the George C. Stockman Residence, Mason City, Iowa. 
^ From Robert Furhoff s report of 1986 on the Meyer May House, Grand Rapids, Michigan. 



34 



surfaces were stippled. The same color, a yellowish gray, was used for priming of 
all the surfaces. The main finish coat color schemes were yellow, browns, 
oranges, and grayish-yellows. 

The Meyer May House also had a mural located on four sides of a pier wall 
between the hall and dining room that was painted with a low gloss oil paint over 
sand-finished plaster. 

Mrs. Thomas H. Gale House^ 

In the Gale House (1909), Oak Park, Illinois, Furhoff investigated the first floor, 
including the entrance hall, a small room to the left of the entrance, the living 
room, and dining room. He found that all original finishes were calcimine paint. 
Original plaster type was not described in this report. The original colors were a 
light-purplish gray on the walls and a yellowish-white on the frieze. 

George Barton House 

The George Barton House located in Rochester, New York (1903) was studied 
by Judith J. Bischoff, Amy Meyer, and Noelle Wiedemer.^ They found that the 
plaster in the Barton house was also sand-float type. Fibers were found in the 



' From Robert Furhoff s report of 1984 on the Mrs. Thomas A. Gale House, Oak Park, Illinois. 
'Judith J Bischoff "Color and material Analysis of Original Plaster Finishes in the George Barton 
house, Buffalo, N.Y." Bulletin: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Frank Lloyd Wright Building 
Conservancy 8, no. 3 (Summer 1999); 12. 



35 



plaster undercoat and were identified as either horse or cattle hair, which was a 
common additive in plaster for the purpose of increased durability. 

The analysts noted that during Wright's Prairie period, staining or finishing plaster 
with a glaze was the preferred technique. Also, distemper or kalsomine paint was 
commonly used in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. However, in the 
Barton House, there was evidence of beeswax and linseed oil in the infrared 
spectra of all of the original paint surfaces. In fact, in Wright's specifications, he 
specified "one coat of transparent finish brushed on, composed of equal parts by 
volume of melted beeswax, turpentine, and linseed oil tinted with oil pigments". 
The record of Wright's specifications is a clear indication that he chose 
customized finishes in the Barton House. The investigators did not find precedent 
for the use of such a medium on domestic interior plaster walls. The exact 
method of application of the material is unknown and was impossible for the 
analysts to uncover with their samples. 

Heurtley House^^ 

The paint restoration of the Arthur Heurtley house (1902) Oak Park, Illinois, was 
undertaken by a painter and contractor named Doug Pherickson. Pherickson 
found that in some of the areas of the Heurtley house, the original sand-float 
plaster was covered over by a later 1/8 inch thick smooth plaster layer. 



^° Bischoff Bulletin: The Quarterly Newsletter of ttie Frank Lloyd Wright Building Consen/ancyAZ. 
^^ Information regarding Heurtley House finishes from telephone interview with Doug Pherickson, 
October 17,1999. 

36 



Replication of the original plaster finish was difficult and in order to get the correct 
sand for the finish, a mason's sand was sieved and the largest particle size was 
used for the plaster finish. 

Pherlckson mechanically removed intervening layers of paint to uncover the 
original paint layers. He found the original layers of paint to be water soluble, 
probably calcimine, though no testing was done for binder identification. 
Pherickson described the original finish as "dead and flat."^^ He found that the 
original finishes were not monochrome, but two to three colors were used over 
the sand-finished plaster. For example, the living room ceiling had a bright 
turquoise as the base paint coat with an ochre layer over it. Pherickson described 
that the original was "the color of a deerskin jacket."^^ The dining room had a 
complex three-colored finish on its upper walls, with a van dyke brown, an ochre, 
and a turquoise green. 

In the restoration of the Heurtley house the painters used alkyd paints. 
Pherickson admits there is a difference since the original calcimine was "dead 
flat," but the felt that the original colors could be accurately replicated. The 
process involved painting on the first coat of paint and then letting it dry. Then the 
second coat was added and the rubbed off with rags to allow some of the first 
color to show through. 



Doug Pherickson, Telephone Interview, 17 October 1999. 
" Doug Pherickson, Telephone Interview, 17 October 1999. 



37 



Summary of interior finishes analyses 

Information regarding a number of Frank Lloyd Wright Houses that have been 
investigated for interior finishes has not been acquired, mostly due to the fact 
only one of these reports of the period before 1910 has been published (Judith 
Bischoffs report on the George Barton House). With few exceptions, those with 
l<nowledge of original Wright finishes have been difficult to contact for interviews 
within the time constraints of the study. 

From these reports, certain characteristics emerge in Wright's finishes during his 
pre-1910 period. These include the common use of sand-float plaster either 
throughout the house or only in select rooms; the use of water-based and 
transparent flat finishes including distemper and calcimine; the occasional use of 
oil-based finishes, especially in rooms of a utilitarian nature such as kitchens; 
and a color palette that including yellows, oranges and browns, but not excluding 
brighter colors such as turquoise, pink, and blue. 



'^ Doug Pherickson, Telephone Interview, 17 October 1999. 

38 



Table 2.1 Pre-1 910 Wright Interior Finishes 



House Name 


Date 


Investigated by 


Plaster Type 


Finish Type 


Predominant 
Colors 


Henderson 
House 

Elmhurst, Ohio 


1901 


Robert Furhoff 
1989 


Sand-float 


Semi-gloss semi 
opaque sealer 
ceiling and 
frieze- casein 
walls -calcimine 


Yellow 
Orange 


Arthur Heurtley 

House 

Oak Park, III. 


1902 


Doug Pherickson 


Sand-float 


calcimine 


Ochre 
Green 
Turquoise 


Ward W. Wiliits 
House 

Highland Park, 
Illinois 


1902- 
1903 


Robert Furhoff 
1994 


Sand-float 


Flat 

Calcimine 

glaze 


Yellow, 
Yellow-green, 
Brown, 
Light olive 


George Barton 
House 
Rochester, NY 


1903 


Judith Bischoff 
1999 


Sand-float 


Beeswax and 
linseed oil with 
oil pigments 


Yellow-brown 
Olive green 
Bright yellow 


Charles A. 
Brown House 
Evanston, 
Illinois 


1907 


Robert Furhoff 
1990 


Sand-float 


Clear primer 
Calcimine paint 




Beachey House 
Oak Park, 
Illinois 


1907 


Robert Furhoff 
1997 


Sand-float 


Flat finish 


Gray-yellow, 
Strong 

yellow-brown, 
olive, 


George C. 
Stockman 
Residence 
Mason City, 
Iowa 


1908 


Robert Furhoff 
1992 


Sand-float 


Distemper 
Oil based paint 


Yellow-pink 
Yellow-gray 


Meyer May 
Grand Rapids, 
Michigan 


1908 


Robert Furhoff 
1986 


Sand-float 


Thin layer of oil 
paint, stippled 
walls 


Yellow 
Brown, 
orange 


Mrs. Thomas 
H. Gale House 
Oak Park, 
Illinois 


1909 


Robert Furhoff 
1984 




Calcimine 


Purple-gray 
Yellow-white 



39 



2.2 Interior Design Literature of the Heller House Period 

A survey of period literature related to trends and recommendations for interior 
finishes is helpful in placing Wright's choices for the Heller House in the context 
the time. A selection of primary sources including The House Beautiful were used 
for information regarding design trends of the period. Also, journals such as The 
Decorator and Furnisher and Painting and Decorating provided valuable advice 
for finish techniques, trends, and materials to both professionals and 
homeowners. Additionally, the publication of The Craftsman, by Gustav Stickley 
provided valuable sources for specific interior design theories that were 
advocated in the early twentieth century as part of the arts and crafts ideals. 

These sources suggested the treatment of interior surfaces depended upon the 
amount of light and the location of the room.^'* Wall treatment was considered to 
be of the utmost importance in decorating and the choice of wall color 
determined the floors, curtains and furniture. ^^ Candace Wheeler wrote in 
Principles of Home Decoration that the ceiling's influence upon the beauty of the 
average house was so small, its treatment was a comparatively easy problem, 
"although greater restfulness of effect is believed to be produced, it was not an 
invariable rule that the ceiling should carry the same tint as the wall."^^ It was 
acceptable for the ceiling to represent light of sky and to be the lightest tone of 



'" "Decoration of Hallways" The Decorator and Furnisher ^5, no. 5 (February 189): 153. 

'^ "Color in House Interiors" Painting and Decorating 9 (1893): 416. 

^^ Candace Wheeler, Principles of l-lome Decoration, (New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 

1912),122. 

40 



gradation in the room.^'' Also, the ceiling could be cream white, a colour believed 
to harmonized well with almost any color walls, and producing the effect of air 
and light in the room.^^ Among proponents of the arts and crafts movement, 
ceilings were generally downplayed. 

Wheeler believed that the true principle of wall treatment is to make the boundary 
stand for color and beauty, and not alone for division of space. "^^ She 
commented that, " Variation, produced by minute differences, which affect each 
other and which the eye blends into a general tone, produce quality."^" Various 
means of achieving variations are described, including placing paint upon rough 
plaster, "so that the small inequalities of surface give light and shadows as in 
textiles: upon such surfaces a pleasant tint in flat colour is always good."^^ "This 
matter of variation without contrast in wall-surface is one of the most important in 
house decoration. "^^ 

Volumes of The House Beautiful v^ere consulted between the years of 1897 and 
1905.^^ Many of the colonial revival houses featured in this publication in the 
early years of this century advocated the use of decorative wallpapers and the 



" "Color in House Interiors" Painting and Decorating 9 (1893): 416. 
'^ Wheeler, Principles of l-lome Decoration, 123. 
^^ Wheeler, Principles of Home Decoration, 89. 
^° Wheeler, Principles of Home Decoration, 110. 
^' V\/heeler, Principles of Home Decoration, 111. 
^^ Wheeler, Principles of Home Decoration, 112. 
^^ The House Beautiful began publication in 1897. 

41 



practice of painting woodwork white.^" These practices were especially prevalent 
in Colonial Revival interiors. A modern house in Cannbridge, Massachusetts had 
a large hall faced with two-tone green wallpaper with ivory woodwork and a 
highly polished floor. The Living room walls were hung in a decorative French 
paper with a rhythmic design. The large and well-lit bedrooms were hung with 
rose-colored paper patterned with bouquets of flowers. 

It was recommended that there be harmony and blending of colors where rooms 
are all open together. In a large house in New York state in 1900, the parlor was 
papered in a soft buff color, the hall was hung in a terra cotta color, and the 
dining room had a large figured paper in brown tones.^^ 

In a home in Lake Forest, Illinois, the halls were hung in a wallpaper of yellow, 
with the woodwork painted white. Wallpaper was used throughout the house. For 
example, the library walls were hung in a soft green paper.^^ A reception room in 
a house in Elyria, Ohio, had gray papered walls with a floral border in yellow and 
red. The same house had burnt orange grass cloth on the dining room walls with 
white painted woodwork.'' In a house in Seattle, the library walls were hung in a 

29 

Pomeiian red ingrain wallpaper and the woodwork was stained a dark green. In 



'" Ruth B Creech A Study of Color and Color Fashions in Selected Interiors from 1901 to 1964 
Presented by House and Garden Magazine, (Masters Thesis in Home Economics, Drexel 
University1964), 7. 

" "Successful Houses." The House Beautiful 7 (1901): 97. 
^' "Some House Beautiful Decorations" The House Beautiful, 7 (1901): 355. 
2^ "Successful Houses." The House Beautiful 8 (1901): 266, ..,,,, ,,^n.^ o-.« 

2^ "More House Beautiful Suggestions in Practice." The House Beautiful 13 (1904). 23b. 
2^ "Successful Houses." The House Beautiful 12 (1903): 168. 

42 



a home in Buena Park, Chicago the reception room was hung with wallpaper in 
soft blues and greens. The living room walls were decorated with a green striped 
wallpaper. ^° 

Other journalists with discounted the value and beauty of wallpapers. It was 
believed by some to be an inferior material because it imitated decorative 
painting.^^ There was still some concern for the toxicity of wallpapers, since 
arsenic had been used.^^ Also paint was revered as a more truthful material to 
arts and crafts advocates, and was believed to be handsome, durable, and easily 
cleansed. Specifically, kalsomine was believed to be an inexpensive a healthful 
wall covering.^^ A description of frank Lloyd Wright's own house in Oak Park, 
Illinois, was published in 1897 in The House Beautiful. The color treatment in 
three first story rooms was a dark color dado, a light green ceiling, and 
sheepskin-colored walls. The library also included overlaid gold designs on the 
green dado. The walls and ceiling in the dining room were covered in golden 
brown arras.^'' 

In addition to paint, wood paneling was also recommended. In an article entitled 
"Interior Walls" Judith Chafee wrote that " wallpapers are inferior as a wall 
decoration to any form or treatment, however simple, that maintains instead of 



^° "A House for All the Year." The House Beautiful 14(1904): 329. 
^' "What Shall We Do With Our Walls?" House Painting and Decorating 1 (1885): 6. 
32 "Why Walls Should Be Painted." House Painting and Decorating 1 (1885): 214. 
" "Why Walls Should Be Painted." House Painting and Decorating 1 (1885): 215. 
^ "Successful Houses." The House Beautiful 3 (February 1997): 65-66. 

43 



effaces the architectural lines of a room. From the decorative point of view, there 
can be no comparison between the flat meanderings of wall paper pattern and 
the strong architectural lines of any scheme of paneling, however simple. "^^ 
These opinions echo the Arts and Crafts beliefs of the time. 

Gustav Stickley believed that the treatment of wall spaces "is the keynote not 
only of the whole character of the house, but of the people who live in it."^^ He 
maintained that the most important feature of wall spaces was the woodwork 
which should never be painted or stained, and that the "friendly" quality of the 
wood should always be apparent^^ 

Stickley also valued the characteristics of sand-finished plaster. "The rough 
texture of the plaster has the effect of seeming to radiate color, while it absorbs 
the light instead of reflecting it as from a smoothly polished surface. "^^ In terms of 
color treatment, he believed that "when the color is put on lightly enough to be as 
trifle uneven instead of a solid hue without variation of a any sort, there is a 
chance for the sparkle and play of light which at once adds life and interest." 

Above is a sampling of the varying opinions related to finish choices during the 
Heller House period. While some were advocating the use of decorative 



^^ Judith Chafee, "Interior Walls" The House Beautiful 12 (1903): 214. 
^^ Gustav Stickley, Craftsman Homes (New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1979), 144. 
^^ Gustav Stickley, Craftsman Homes (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1979), 146. 
^® Gustav Stckley, Craftsman Homes (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1979), 147. 

44 



wallpapers, more commercially available after the 1840s, others felt that 
wallpaper was a false substitute for other finishes. Color choices varied greatly, 
and were usually very specific to room use. The idea of treating the house as a 
continuous space began to come into fashion, where colors were similar or the 
same from one room to the other. Stickley believed in the honest use of materials 
such as wood and textured plaster, ideas that Wright himself subscribed to. 



2.3 Finish Literature of the Helle r House Period 

2.3.1 Paint 

Paint is "a mechanical mixture or dispersion of pigments or other colorants in a 
liquid or vehicle."^^ The vehicle usually consists of the binding medium and a 
thinner. When paints are applied, the thinner evaporates and the binder forms a 



solid film that holds the pigments fixed in place. 

In "The Elementary Components of Paint" an article in House Painting and 
Decorating in 1885, the function of paint is explained that "Paint serves a twofold 
purpose- viz. to protect and preserve the material to which it is applied, and to 
render the object more pleasing.'"*^ 



'' Manual on the Selection and Use of Paints, (Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, 

1950) 1 
*° Theodore Zuk Penn, "Decorative and protective Finishes, 175-1850" Association for the 

Preservation of Technology ^6, no. ^ (^9M)■. 3. ^ ,^nor^ ^^r, 

"^ "The Elementary Components of Paint" House Painting and Decorating 1 (1885): 1 1 6. 

45 



Distemper and Other Water-based House Paints 

A survey of paint literature from the turn of the century reveals a variety of 
definitions, descriptions, and recipes for distemper and other v^ater-soluble 
paints. 

The term "distemper" is rather vague and unclear because there are different 
types of distemper paints. In America, for example, the word mainly was used for 
glue distempers, while in England the term was applied more broadly to other 
types of water-based paints, including those bound by casein.'*^ 

In Carpentry and Building magazine (1887), distemper was defined simply as "A 
paint made with a water-soluble adhesive or glue binder.'"*^ 

In the Expert Ca/c/m/ner (1920), the author describes distemper as 

A paint made from pigments diluted with water, to which some 
adhesive substance is added to fix It to the ground on which it is 
used.'^^ 

In House Painting and Decorating (1885) distemper is described in terms of its 

preparation as 

a whiting and jellied size made into a paste and then melted to a 
clear liquid that will turn to a yellow unless a little blue or black 



"^ Morgan W. Phillips, " A Victorian Trompe L'Oeil" in Paint in America, Roger W. Moss, ed., 156. 
■*' Theodore Zuk Pen n," Decorative and Protective Finishes, 1750-1850", APT Journal 16, no. 1 

(1984): 25. 
■^ A. Ashmun Kelly, The Expert Calciminer, 2"" edition, (1920), 126. 

46 



pigment is added. In applying the wash care should be taken to 
stop all draughts. The painter should face the light so that his hand 
and arm should not shadow the end of each stroke. Care must be 
taken to have no patches requiring to be gone over. The moment 
the job is finished, the air should be freely admitted."^^ 

According to period sources, the term distemper was often used interchangeably 

with the term calcimine and they were often believed to be superior to oil and 

lead paint in the clearness and delicacy of its tints. In The Expert Calciminer, the 

author explains that Calcimine or distemper. 

Does not discolor from age as oil paint does, but holds its tints and 
colors perfectly for years, unless dampness is present, in which 
case water paint deteriorates rapidly. Calcimine is easily washed 
off.'' 

In 1908, Paul Hasluk wrote in House Decoration that: 

In America, wall colouring in Distemper is called kalsomining and is 
best done when the walls are neither cold nor very hot. 

Hasluk then provided a recipe for the preparation of white kalsomine: 

10 lbs. Best whiting (calcium carbonate) 

1 'A lbs. White glue 

Vz lb. Alum 

and a little ultramarine blue 

Put the glue to soak for 12 hrs in cold water and then set it on fire 

and stir until dissolved Put 'A gallon cold water over the whiting 

and when dissolved, add the glue, the blue, and the alum which 

must have been dissolved in hot water. Stir well, strain through a 

47 

Sieve. 
An article entitled "Kalsomining" from Painting and Decorating (1892) described 
the preparation of the mixing of kalsomine: 



' "Distempering" House Painting and Decorating ^, (1885-1886): 266. 
' Kelley, Tlie Expert Calciminer, 186. 

' Paul N. Hasluk, House Decoration (Caseell & Co., Ltd., 1908), 99. 

47 



Always begin by mixing up the whiting in water to the consistency 

of thin mush. Strike the tint before adding the glue. Glue should be 

soaked at least one hour in cold water before being cooked. It is 

ready for use as soon as it is dissolved by heat. By soaking the 

glue in water, the full benefit of the binder is obtained. 

The first coat may be applied hot, but the second coat as cold as 

possible. 

In tinting walls always use earth or natural colors, because the lime 

in the walls affect a number of the chemical colors and causes the 

work to look streaky. '^^ 



For the coloring of distemper, it was advised that: 

All pigments should be mixed with the whiting before the size was 
added and should be either ground very fine or should be washed 
as to ensure the most minute division of particles. ^^ 

The most useful and ordinary pigments for staining whiting are: for 

warm tints-Venetian and Indian reds and burnt sienna 

For buffs and cinnamons- natural ochres, umbers and siennas with 

the above reds 

For blue and grey-lime blue and ultramarine 

For French grey-lime blue and ultramarine with red 

Where neutral is required-blue black or Paris black 

For greens-raw sienna or ochre with lime blue, indigo, or 

ultramarine 

Dark colours seldom require whiting^° 



According to one recent author, calcimine's "oldest and perhaps most proper 
meaning is commercially-prepared distemper paint and that in the twentieth 
century, the term "has referred to both glue distemper paints and paints 
containing casein as all or part of the binder".^^ 



Arthurs. Barbier, "Ka\somr\m^," Painting and Decorating! , no. 12: 1119-1120. 
"^ Hasluk, House Decoration, 101. 
^° Hasluk, House Decoration, 102. 

^^ Morgan Phillips, in Paint in America (Washington, D.C.: National trust for Historic Preservation, 
1994), 156. 

48 



The binder in distemper was most often a type of glue, but was not limited to this 

as explained in The Expert Calciminer. 

Binders used in water paints sucti as calcimine and other 
distempers included animal glue, vegetable glue, fish glue, gelatin, 
waterglass (silicate of soda), casein, flour, starch, molasses or 
syrup, dextrin, gum tragacanth, sugar, milk, honey, Iceland and 
Irish moss, glucose, and gum shellac.^^ 

Some general properties and advantages of calcimine were recently described in 

the Old-House Journal Compendium: 

Calcimine paint was used commonly in America from the early 18'^ 
century until the early part of the 20"^ century. It is a water-based 
wash often mixed right on the job from whiting, or chalk, glue size, 
water, and pigment.^^ Calcimine was popular because it could be 
made inexpensively with common materials and was attractive 
because of its soft, lustrous, flat finish. ^'^ It is very different than the 
effect from oil-based or latex paints. A drawback noted for 
calcimine paints is that layer on top of layer of calcimine tends to 
crack and peel. It was advised to always wash off the old calcimine 
before painting again. ^^ 

In The Expert Calciminer, instructions are given for calcimining a sand-finished 

wall: 

If the walls are new and clean, and in good condition, one coat of 
calcimine will give the perfect finishes when the sand-finish is not 
obscured with too much calcimine. When a sand-finished wall is in 
the right condition, it will need no size. A sand finished wall requires 
a heavier brush such as the heavy German pattern. ^^ 



■ A. Ashmun Kelly, The Expert Calciminer, (A. Ashmun Kelly, 1920), 90. 

' Clem Labine, ed., Ttie Old-House Journal Compendium, (Woodstock, New York: The Overlook 
Press, 1980), 174. 
' Ibid. 

' Labine, ed.. The Old House Journal Compendium, 175. 
' Kelly, The Expert Calciminer, 6. 

49 



In addition to period literature, some commercially prepared paint cards of the 
late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were examined at the Athenaeum of 
Philadelphia. On the following pages are some examples of commercially 
prepared calcimine and distemper paints. (Figures 2.1-2.4.) 

From the paint definitions and descriptions above, it seems that the terms 
calcimine and distemper were used somewhat interchangeably. Subtle 
differences might lie in proportions of glue or other binder, proportions of whiting 
or calcium carbonate, and whether or not they were hand mixed or commercially 
prepared. 



50 



PARSONS* 

Washable /^ Distempe 







ruu. u«T 

OP 
ISO OCMjOUMS 



fnmm 

ON 
*MH.ICATfON, 



THO». PARSONS * SONa. 
«TIMI«T, UOHH ACK- 



' -«r-^?<vwaHci:« 



Figure 2.1 Parson's Washable Distemper Paint Card, 1908. 
From the Athenaeum Philadelphia. 



51 



JOHNSTON'S PATENT STANDARD 

FRESCO PAINTS, ^-^^ 

OFFICE. 206 WATER STREET, NEW YORK, 





vrrsMKssaataaaasBc 



-— gsc5PirS5i^For_Border^^ 




Figure 2.2 Johnston's Patent Kalsomine and Fresco Paints, 1890. 
From the Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 



52 



»0OM— IKxU iMt 




Figure 2.3 Adams and Elting Co. Hygienic Kaisomine, 1909. 
From the Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 




^ .Mtrsmm^^^Si 



Figure 2.4 Adams and Elting Co. Hygienic Kaisomine, 1909. 
From the Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 



53 



2.3.2 Wood finishes 



As noted above, the advocates of the colonial revival in the late-nineteenth 
century recommended white paint as a wood finish. However, others, especially 
proponents of the Arts and Crafts movement, advocated letting the natural quality 
of the wood prevail. As early as 1875, F.B. Gardner wrote in How to Paint, "The 
custom of finishing houses with beautiful woods, instead of with paint, is a very 
tasteful one, and we are glad to notice that it is rapidly growing in favor with the 
public."^^ In the House beautiful one writer in 1900 wrote about the beauty and 
truthfulness in materials of Japanese domestic architecture. He wrote that the 
Japanese handle wood, "with a fineness of feeling that at best we (Americans) 
reveal only when we are dealing with precious marbles.... and anything that may 
obscure the beauty of texture and grain is rigidly kept away." 

Additionally, Gustav Stickley advocated wood as a priority in interiors. For 
finishing quarter-sawn oak, the wood used in the Heller house, he recommended 
applying several coats of floor for a satin finish. ^^ 



'' F.B. Gardner, How fo Pa/nf (New York: S.R.Wells, 1875), 118. 

^® Gustav Stickley, The Best of Craftsman Homes (Santa Barbara, California: Peregrine Smith, 

1979)224. 

54 



2.3.3 Sand-float Plaster 



Description 

Sand float plaster or a float finish is a term denoting a plaster finish used when a 
surface texture is desired. Many Frank Lloyd Wright buildings include plaster 
surfaces with sand-float finishes. ^^ Many other turn of the century houses had 
sand-float finishes.^° The coarseness of the float finish depends on the type of 
aggregate, the proportions of the mixture, and the type of float used. The texture 
of a float finish results from the action of aggregate particles disturbed by the 
moving float tool on the surface. The float is a tool used to glide over the surface 
of the plaster to fill voids and hollow spaces and to level any irregularities. It is 
also used to compact the plaster material depending on the pressure applied by 
the plasterer. Additionally, a float can be used to impart texture to a finish 
plaster.^^ 

Appication 

For the application of the float finish, it is recommended that the base coat over 
which the plaster is applied be uniformly damp. The plasterer, with a brush in one 
hand, applies water to the surface while the float in his other hand moves in a 
circular motion immediately behind the brush. It is common practice in more 
recent years that a surface be floated two times; first a "rough floating" with a 



Frank S. Welsh, "Frank Lloyd Wright's Use of Wax at Wingspread," Bulletin: the Quarterly 
Newsletter of the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy 10, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 16. 
' From Report by Robert Furhoff on the Emery Zusag house (1902), Walter Burly Griffin 
architect. 

John R. Diehi, Manual of Lathing and Plastering, (New York: Mac Publishers Association, 
1960), 118. 

55 



wooden float, that is followed immediately by a final application with a rubber 
float.^^ 

Standard Recipes 

To provide information regarding the preparation method for sand-float finishes, 

some standard proportions for finish coat float finishes mixed on-site is given 

below: 

2 parts lime putty: 1 !4 parts Keene's cement: 4 Yt parts sand by 
volume 

1 part dry tiydrate lime putty: 1 !4 parts gypsum gauging plaster: 2.3 
parts sand by weigtit 

2 parts dry hydrate lime putty: 1 part Portland cement: 2.5 parts 
sand by weight 

1 part lime putty: 3 parts sand by volume 

1 part gypsum neat plaster: 2 parts sand by weighf^ 



John R. Diehl, Manual of Lathing and Plastering (New York: Mac Publishers Association, 
1960), 118. 
Diehl, Manual of Lathing and Plastering, 94. 

56 



CHAPTER 3 SITE INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES 

A site visit was made to the Heller House on November 18 to 20, 1999 in order to 
photograph, document, and sample the interior. Selected finish samples were 
taken for analysis to the Architectural Conservation Laboratory at the University 
of Pennsylvania. Each room In the house was assigned a number in order to 
organize the sample collection and documentation. (Figures 3.1-3.3.) Essential 
information was recorded on the site data sheets during the visit. (Figure 3.4, 
3.5.) 



57 



o 



B' 



10 




rOi 



Figure 3.1 Heller House First Floor Plan with room numbers 



S8 



r2.10 



r~ 



2.11 



t 



2.09 



2.08 



2.05 



2.04 



2.01 




J 



e±3-^TT5=C 



Figure 3.2 Heller House Second Floor Plan with rooin numbers 



59 




Figure 3.3 Heller House Third Floor Plan with room numbers 
60 



3.1 Archival and Site Documentation 



Written documentation of the Heller House was an essential part of the project. 
The rooms were systematically inventoried using the room documentation form 
below in order to account for all significant existing components and their 
modification over time. 



Room name: XtVitli: f 


HELLER HOUSE 
Room Description 


Room number /. / 

>i' Wide .K'T-.tprr? r^i/rlM 


Floor dcsmption; C)l\^ , ^.T'-' ."■ ' 


- ■ .. . '.-i o 


<* re-^.n!-^r^. 


Wall description; |.^ v.-' ' ' ''C ' 


'fif^ rnnws ->/. 




'" ^ostH/fr/bi, wvkikl 


(r-r f- r^m,^ rAf^ rvidfn 


((& ;?,; ArvIS /« 


f-k^ 


/^v/) 


J - 1 


Cdlmpdcscnpnon: iTOUlf-l pi'l^ft^ 










' 1 


WooArork: DArk 'in.'Y.cA ,0,1 K 


.b(sids>6Cfd If:" 


;-tr 




• 


bA^b(K(?1 OA Wr?,!- f^JCi h-Lr 


W'^/rrh UO- rt. 


n^f^/- 


■^>t\-jf-. 


r^r, if 


Doors: ni^JK .iri- " C/irtJ^f;-! :"=;.■" 






■jf> Ol'fil 


.VaMcdxciMo 


hrtll . C;(U<vu- d'K- • n ArA! ?,p v/r^.f \r^kn rcc 


riTTrt 


'Gvr -■■ 


n;c c'cf-fA h ! \((c>r^:'&iL fMV 


Windows: l^iOV/CL 




R-uriwarr: |^fl-'.^ fl«.^r(lrA 




Other features: l^bv^ rrri»ri:i- !>ld 


:- CrAWlfesvict 


ritv>!r At- f Jo&i-*- +CX--. 




RoomHislorv/Ownerinfonnation: .^' ■ 


¥>. ^-vtivs iV^or ; 


C-hl 


rC.C/ W;,- 


'.nV//s', <'r->-iA?C<^ 


^>'^<, M^-^ 







Figure 3.4 Room description sheet used during site visit 



61 



Photographic documentation of the Heller House was also carried out to 
supplement the written descriptions. 



EILM; 
DATE: 



HELLER HOUSE 
INTERIOR FINISHES 



ZANAWOLF 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



PHOTO LOG 



FRAME 


LOCATION 


COMMENTS/ SIGNIFICANCE 


1 






2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 






8 






9 






10 




1 


U 






12 






13 






14 






15 






16 






17 






18 






19 






20 






21 






22 




i 


23 




1 


24 




1 


25 




1 



Figure 3.5 Photo log used during site visit 



62 



3.2 Finish Investigation and Sampling 



Investigation of the interior finishes began with a background discussion with the 
owners. Judith Bromley pointed out specific information about the finishes that 
was in turn used as a guide in the sample investigation. For example, Bromley 
explained her own investigations, recommended locations in the house that she 
believed had original fabric, and indicated areas of particular interest to her. Each 
space in the house was investigated to determine discreet areas where original 
finishes could be removed as the house is currently occupied and is finished. 
Each sample number and location was keyed on the Heller House plan. For 
example sample 1.01-1 is the first sample taken form the vestibule on the first 
floor with 1.01 being the room number and 1 being the sample number. Sample 
numbering started at one in each new room investigated. (Table 3.1) 

A variety of sample types were taken during the investigation. The primary goal 
of the site investigation was to uncover and identify original finishes rather than to 
sample blindly. Sample types included protected painted plaster for original 
extant finishes, samples with subsequent overpaint layers, original plaster, 
protected wood from underneath hardware, and wood window sash samples for 
the original window finishes.^ 



' A full list if samples taken is on the following page. All samples were taken by Zana Wolf unless 
otherwise noted with initials for Frank Matero (F.G.M) or Robert Furhoff (R.F.). 

63 



Table 3.1 Heller House Finish Sample List 



Sample Room Name Sample eo.„„io i «oofi«„ 
# Material ^^"^P'^ •-°^^*'°" 


1.01-1 


vestibule 


Builder's 
paper 


Behind top of mirror, west wall 


1.01-2 


vestibule 


plaster 


Behind wooden frame of mirror, west wall 


1.01-3 


vestibule 


canvas 


Above mirror, behind wood molding, west wall 


1.01-4 


Vestibule 


Wood 


Top of baseboard to east of double doors 


1.01-5 


Vestibule 


Plaster and 
paint 


Closet, above baseboard, north side 


1.01-6 


Vestibule 


Plaster and 
paint 


Closet, behind baseboard, west side 










1.02-1 


Reception 


Wood 


Behind switch plate on pillar, north side 


1.02-2 


Reception 


Wood 


Window sash above handle, south wall 


1.02-3 


Reception 


Canvas and 
paint 


Behind radiator, north wall 


1.02-4 


Reception 


Plaster and 
paint 


Above entry, north wall, near east corner 










1.03-1 


Hall 


Wood 


West door of double doors into vestibule, 
behind hardware plate 


1 .03-2 


Hall 


Painted 
plaster 


East wall, behind baseboard, protected drip 


1.03-3 


Hall 


Wood molding 


East wail, near 1.03-2 


1.03-4 


Hall 


Painted 
plaster 


Behind switch plate, south wall, near dining 
room 


1.03-5 


Hall 


Painted 
plaster 


Behind switch plate, south wall, near living 
room 










1.04-1 


Living Room 


Painted 
plaster 


Original finish, drop ceiling, near south east 
corner, where light fixture removed 


1 .04-2 


Living Room 


Wood 


Window sash, under hardware 


1.04-3 


Living Room 


Canvas 


West bookcase near south side of room 


1.04-4 


Living Room 


Wood 


Window sash, unprotected, second bay from 
west, south wall 


1.04-5 


Living Room 


Painted 
plaster 


Behind wall light sconce (R. F.) 


1.04-6 


Living Room 


Painted 
plaster 


Strip between wood moldings (R.F.) 


1 .04-7 


Living Room 


Painted 
plaster, 
canvas 


Transition between wall corner and ceiling 
banding (R.F.) 


1.04-8 


Living Room 


Painted 
plaster 


South bay ceiling (R.F.) 


1 .04-9 


Living Room 


Paint 


New metallic gold paint used in room 


1.04-10 


Living Room 


Canvas 


Canvas layer over original paint 










1.06-1 


Porch 


Wood 


Window frame, south door sidelight (FGM) 


1 .06-2 


Porch 


Plaster 


Transom panel above door, south side (F.G.M) 


1 ,06-3 


Porch 


Wood 


Enframement, south door (F.G.M.) 



64 



1.06-4 


Porch 


Wood 


Bottom fascia board below windows sill, east 
wall(F.G.M.) 


1.06-5 


Porch 


Wood 


Transom bead on hinge, bottom, frame east 
(F.G.M.) 


1.06-6 


Porch 


Wood 


Casement window frame (fixed) on East wall 
(F.G.M.) 


1.06-7 


Porch 


Wood 


Beaded board ceiling, under gypboard over 
plaster (F.G.M.) 


1.06-8 


Porch 


Wood 


Window stile (F.G.M.) 


1.06-9 


Porch 


Wood 


Screen door stop, porch exterior, over door 
(F.G.M) 


1.06-10 


Porch 


Wood 


Exterior porch, original art glass stile (F.G.M.) 


1.06-11 


Porch 


Wood 


Storm casement, exterior (F.G.M.) 


1.06-12 


Porch 


Wood 


Exterior door frame under screen door step 
(F.G.M.) 










1.08-1 


Servant Hall 


Plaster 


Corner of baseboard and trim, north wall, by 
basement 


1.08-2 


Servant Hall 


Wood 


Threshold between 1.08 and 1.14 


1.08-3 


Servant Hall 


Wood 


Double door pine behind hardware 


1.08-4 


Servant hall 


Plaster 


South wall, behind radiator 


1.08-5 


Servant Hall 


Plaster 


Inside closet east wall 










1.09-1 


Kitchen 


Plaster 


Next to door in Servant hall 


1.09-2 


Kitchen 


Wood 


East window sash, bottom right corner 


1.09-3 


Servant's dining 
room 


Plaster 


Near baseboard, northwest corner 


1.09-4 


Servant's Dining 
Room 


Plaster 


South wall (J. B.) 


1.11-1 


Pantry 


Plaster 


Next to door to kitchen, behind new baseboard, 
west wall 


1.11-2 


Pantry 


Wood 


Sliding window of pantry furniture, exterior side 


1.11-3 


Pantry 


Wood 


Pantry window, exposed area 










1.12-1 


Dining Room 


Plaster 


Behind switch plate, east wall, between hall 
and alcove 


1.12-2 


Dining Room 


Wood 


Alcove, north side, wood trim 


1.12-3 


Dining Room 


Wood 


Loose piece from floor. Southwest corner 


1.12-4 


Dining Room 


Paint 


From window sash, closet to pantry, west wall 


1.12-5 


Dining Room 


Plaster 


Alcove, between two wood trims/strips, south 
wall 










1.13-1 


Telephone room 


Canvas 


Wall field, north wall 


1.13-2 


Telephone 
Room 


Plaster 


Wall field, east wall 










1.14-1 


Hall, behind stair 


Wood 


Exterior side bathroom door, under hardware 


1.14-2 


Hall, behind stair 


Plaster 


North wall, next to elevator and porch, behind 
baseboard 


1.14-3 


Hall, behind 
stair 


Plaster 


South wall, above glass window 











65 



1.14-4 


Hall, behind 
stair 


Plaster 


North wail, above elevator 










1.15 


Bathroom 


Plaster 


North wall, by stair, under rail 










2.01-1 


Master Bedroom 


Wood 


Exterior window stile sample, south wall 


2.01-2 


Master Bedroom 


Plaster 


East wall, south east corner, by baseboard 










2.04-1 


Bedroom 


Plaster 


South wall, to east of radiator 










2.05-1 


Bedroom 


Plaster 


North wall, cracked plaster 


2.05-2 


Bedroom 


Wood 


Window, exterior sash, south wall 


2.05-3 


Bedroom 


Plaster 


Wall field, cracked plaster, east wall 


2.05-4 


Bedroom 


Plaster 


West wall, above baseboard, where separation 
occurs 










2.06-1 


Hall 


Plaster 


West wall, next to 2.09, behind peeled canvas, 
above baseboard 


2.06-2 


Hall 


Wood 


Baseboard, west wall 


2.06-3 


Hall 


Plaster, 
canvas 


Between windows, in stairway 










2.08-1 


Bathroom 


Plaster 


North wall, where canvas removed 










2.09-1 


Bedroom 


Plaster 


South wall, by baseboard, near east corner 










2.10-1 


Dressing room 


Plaster 


Above rail, next to built in, west wall 










2.11-1 


Closet 


Plaster 


West wall, above baseboard 


2.11-2 


Closet 


Plaster 


East wall, above first rail 










2.12-1 


Sewing room 


Plaster 


East wall, where it is pulled away 


2.12-2 


Sewing room 


Plaster 


South wall, above baseboard 










2.13-1 


Closet 


Plaster 


North wall 










3.01-1 


Bathroom 


Wood 


Casement window sash, interior 










3.03-1 


Hall and stair 


Plaster 


Below window 










3.07-1 


Dining Room 


Wood 


Beaded board inside cabinet 


3.07-2 


Dining Room 


Wood 


Exterior door of cabinet 


3.07-3 


Dining Room 


Wood 


Wall field west wall by baseboard 


3.07-4 


Dining Room 


Wood 


Baseboard on south side 










3.08-1 


Play Room 


Wood 


East wall, wood trim around window 


3,08-2 


Play Room 


Wood 


Ceiling joist south end, western joist 


3.08-3 


Play Room 


Wood 


Behind wall paper south wall, by radiator 



66 



CHAPTER 4 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 

A variety of analytical techniques were employed to analyze the finishes in the 
Heller House. Analysis included paint stratigraphy documentation, original finish 
color investigation, finish classification, pigment identification, and plaster 
classification. Techniques ranged from visible light microscopy for identification 
and documentation of paint layers, to instrumental techniques including scanning 
electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and electron 
dot mapping for confirmation of pigments and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for 
the identification of paint binders. Each technique and its use in the Heller House 
samples is described below. 

4.1 Paint Layer Documentation 

Finish samples were inspected under a Nikon stereomicroscope. Samples 
having potential original finish information were chosen for further cross-sectional 
examination and analysis. To view a sample clearly in cross section, the sample 
was mounted in a polyester resin. Bioplast®. Two parallel cross sectional cuts 
were made through the mounted sample with a slow-cutting diamond blade 
Isomet® saw. The cross section was then sanded and polished for clearer 
viewing under the microscope. 

Over 100 sections were prepared from the Heller House samples; in some cases 
several sections were made from a single sample because it provided various 

67 



information. Many painted plaster samples provided no information regarding the 
original room finishes, but were useful for determining subsequent paint layers. A 
paint layer stratigraphy sheet was developed and used for the documentation of 
each sample. (Figure 4.1, 4.2.) This enabled as much information as possible 
through microscopy to be recorded. This sheet was especially valuable for 
recording and describing all the layers that were visible. Taken together, the 
samples gave a chronology of original and subsequent paint layers. 
(Photomicrographs of the sample cross-sections are located in Appendix B, 
pages 137-169.) 

The most important layer for focused study was the original paint layer. In those 
samples retaining original paint, the layers were visibly different in composition 
and texture, and obviously quite different from subsequent paint layers. In the 
original paint layers, groups of pigments were often easily isolated under the 
microscope because the samples were so densely pigmented. 



68 



Sisc:] 

Sample N'lunbcr; liQA'5. K 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior f-muhcs Analysis Sample SlMXt 

Architectural Conscrvarioci IjiboraJofy 

LniTcnnty of Pennjytvanb 



Room; rg,<l&phfkV 



Sample Ixxanon: JjfltuJ/^nY , t^xJCJ. h Wfl i I ,., Sft.'rAl , COhf ^A<L 

Sample fomovcd by: ^A/ Date of removal: U|t'l | f? ' 



Sample examined bjr: 



■: -g-Vv/ 



Date of cxanlirtation^ 



= ih^|{ n? 



InfomvMiGn rtgartfing sampfc Axf^^y?,^ r^ OfK^t^*^ SCL '.h ff/f^.fr'^ 



M^^ifkaiiofi; y. f O 



Mounted c<r unmounted sample: M [r»y|trfi_. 



Sample SiAatrate: V^ OOd 



rtiotograph numbcn , 



jLL 



STR.\T3GtL\PitY 



COMMUNIS 



VjqqA 



^V^i^^^O- 



Jidla&/ — _ 

. 1. .1. !._ ' ' 



pg-VWCi;;^ 



\yr>v^<"- 



-fiAjjrtl-. 



\-^U^:g5 rif py^.^fr- 



7. . 

«. 
9. 
10.. 

n.. 

12.. 
13 . 
I*.. 
IS . 



SumtMfv. / ^/y//-? /^./;V>-/?,<. /'V<://^/.^il.£^ 



Figure 4.1 Sample stratigraphy sheet used during microscopic examination of samples 



69 



^ .: ;■. ^'\t. *-*«' -. '- 




^ 




Figure 4.2 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.05-3 from the bedroom. 
During analysis of samples such as this from bedroom 2.05, all layers were recorded 
and described in terms of color, thickness, and texture on the stratigraphy sheet on 
the previous page. Magnification is 25X. 



70 



4.2 Original Finish Color Investigation 



A significant part of tine analysis was the identification of the original paint colors. 
From the samples taken form the Heller House, it was possible to obtain most of 
the original paint colors, though the pantry and the kitchen had been so greatly 
altered that investigation and sampling provided no information as to original 
treatment. 

A variety of paint colors were used throughout the house including dark brown in 
the reception room, light orange in the central hall, green in the drawing room, 
and red in the dining room. Therefore, the on the two ends of the main axis were 
painted in contrasting colors. Color theorists in the mid-nineteenth century 
advocated the use of contrasting primary colors both within rooms and houses.'" 
By the end of the century, analogous color schemes were becoming popular as 
well as tertiary colors. ^ 

In the living room, there was decorative banding produced between the wood 
trim on the walls that were painted with a bronzing powder. The corner of the wall 
where it meets the ceiling was a band highlighted in a yellow-ochre finish. The 
dining room alcove also had a bronzing powder between two wood bands. 



' M.E. Chevreul, The Laws of Contrast of Colour, New edition (London: George Routledge and 
Sons, 1857), 153-1 55. 

^ Gail Caskey Winkler, Written notes, 29 April 2000. 

71 




Figure 4.3 Living room. Original finishes are reproduced in the room today. 



Area between wood 
bands had a 
metallic finish 




Figure 4.4 The area between wood bands in the dining room alcove originally finished 
with bronzing powder. 



72 



While the hall was originally painted in a light orange, the wall panel closest to 
the living room on the west end of the hall (on the south wall) had originally been 
painted green to match the living room, while the panel closest to the dining room 
on the east end of the hall (on the south wall) had originally been painted in red 
to match the dining room. This unusual treatment may have been chosen to 
emphasize the continuity along the main axis of the house - helping to connect 
one space to the next. The hall color would separate but mediate between the 
living room and dining room colors, red and green. (Figure B.6, B.7.) 

While the first floor was painted mostly in red, orange, and brown tones, the 
second floor, had a greater variety of colors including a blue-green in the master 
bedroom, an orange-red in another bedroom and a moss green in the sewing 
room. There was a difference in both plaster and paint color in the transition 
between the first and second floor halls. Above the rail in the stair hall, the plaster 
is a smooth finish coat, while in the hall below it is sand-float plaster. The wall 
color changes from orange in the first-floor hall to red-orange in the second-floor 
hall. No two rooms on the second floor were painted in the same color. 



73 



4.2.1 Color Matching 

The original paint layers were matched in cross section under reflected light to 
the Munsell matte color standards. The table on the following page includes the 
Munsell color notation, a sample of the finish color, and the sample number and 
location of the sample used for color matching. (Figure 4.5.) 




Figure 4.5 The original paint color of the Heller house rooms, including this sample 

from the living room, was identified by matching the paint layer in cross section under the 
stereomicroscope to Munsell matte color samples. 



74 



Table 4.1 Heller House Paint Colors 



Sample representative 
of 


Samples used 
for color matching 


Munsell 
notation 


Color Sample 


Vestibule 
wall field 


1.01-5, 
1.01-6 


2.5 YR 3/2 






Reception Room 
wall field 


1.02-4 


5 YR 5/8 






Hall 
Wall field 


1.03-2 
1.03-5 


7.5 YR 5/8 






Living Room 

walls 

ceiling 


1.04-1 


10 Y 4/2 






Living room 
area between wall 
corner and ceiling 
(band) 


1.04-7 


10YR 6/8 






Living room 
window sash 


1.04-2 


10 Y 3/2 






Servant Hall 
between kitchen and 
elevator 


1.08-2 


7.5 YR 6/8 






Servants' dining room 
Wall field 


1.09-4 


5 YR 3/4 







75 



Sample representative 
of 


Sample used for 
color matching 


Munsell 
Notation 


Color sample 


Dining Room wall field 


1.12-1 


7.5 R 3/8 


■ 




Telephone Room 


1.13-1 


2.5 YR 8/4 






Hall 

behind stair hail 

By elevator and porch 


1.14-4 


5YR 5/8 


■ 




Bathroom 
first floor 


1.15-1 


7.5 YR 9/4 




Master Bedroom 
wall field 


2.01-2 


2.5 GY 7/2 






Master bedroom 
exterior of art glass 
window 


2.01-1 


7.5 YR 8/4 






Bedroom wall field 


2.04-1 


10 YR 8/4 






Bedroom 
wall field 


2.05-5 


2.5 YR 6/8 


■ 





76 



Sample representative 
of 


Samples used for 
color matching 


Munsell 
notation 


Color Sample 


Hall 

(2"'' Floor) 


2.06-1 
2.06-3 


2.5 YR 6/8 


■ 




Bedroom 
wall field 


2.09-1 


7.5 YR 7/8 


■■ 




Sewing Room 
wall field 


2.12-1 
2.12-2 


7.5 Y 6/4 


■ 




Closet 
(In hall) 


2.13-1 


2.5 G 8/2 










Attic 

Hall and bedrooms 


3.03-1 


5GY 5/2 







77 



4.3 Finish Classification 



Binding media is typically used for classification of paints or other finishes. 
Organic binding materials found in architectural finishes include four main 
groups: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and resins or terpenes. The binder 
contributes to the different characteristics and properties of various finishes. For 
example, a water-based paint such as a glue distemper appears matte, or low in 
gloss, whereas an oil based paint is often recognizable because of its gloss and 
reflectiveness. As part of the identification and interpretation of the types of 
finishes Wright used in the Heller House, it was essential to identify the binders 
used in both the original wall and original wood finishes. 

Microscopic inspection revealed that the original paint layers from the first floor 
(living room, dining room, hall, vestibule, reception room) can be described as 
matte, coarsely pigmented, and very heterogeneous. (Figure 4.6,4.7.) Therefore, 
in the original paint layers in cross section, groups of pigments are visible, the 
layers appear coarse, and the color of the paint layer varies across the sample. 
Samples from the sewing room on the second floor and the attic shared the 
same characteristics. The visible characteristics of these paint samples 
suggested that they were distemper paints instead of oil or wax. The original 
paint layers in such rooms as the first floor bathroom and the second floor 
bedrooms, were glossy and more homogenous in appearance. (Figure 4.8.) 



78 




Figure 4.6 Photomicrograph of sample 1.03-2 from the hall. Original orange finish 

layer is densely pigmented and heterogeneous. Magnification SOX. 




Figure 4.7 Photomicrograph of surface of sample 1.04-1 from the living room. 
The original layer is coarsely textured and the various pigments are visible. SOX. 



79 




Figure 4.8 Photomicrograph of sample 2.05-4. Original paint in many of the 
bedrooms appears glossy and well-dispersed. Magnification SOX. 



80 



4.3.1 Solubility Testing for Binding Media Analysis 

Solubility testing is a relatively simple technique for the basic identification of 
binding media. It can be done on site or in the laboratory, and is based on 
whether or not the sample being tested dissolves in certain chosen solvents. A 
study from Rutherford J. Gettens, entitled "Solubility of Film Substances in 
Organic Solvents," indicates known solvents used to identify the presence of 
certain film substances and was used as a model for testing solubilities of Heller 
House samples in order to characterize their binding media.^ 

Solubility testing was carried out on both paint and wood finish samples. Three 
original paint layers in the living room, dining room, and hall were tested for water 
solubility, and all three were soluble. Figure 4.10 shows the result of wetting each 
of these finishes. 

Wood samples showed evidence of varnish, paint and wax layers, which were 
also tested for their solubility. Table 4.2 indicates the sample tested, what 
solvents were tested, and draws conclusions about possible media. 



^ Rutherford J. Gettens, "Solubility of Film Substances in Organic Solvents," Technical Studies 9, 
239(1941). 

81 



'^9^E«!^ 



'**^'*' ^v* *"T ^ 



Figure 4.10 Indication of water solubility of sample 1.03-2, 1.04-1, 1.12-1, the 
hall, living room, and dining room respectively. 



Table 4.2 Solubility Testing of Selected Heller House Samples 



Sample 
# 


Sample description 




1 

o 

X 


o 

8 

TO 


c 
o 

1 


0) 


E a, 
2 "o 
c x 
o o 

E-o 

1^ 


Q) 

c 

X 


2^ 


1.03-1 


Orange paint over 
rough sand plaster 


S 














Water 
distemper 


1 .04-8 


Green paint over rough 
sand plaster 


S 














Water 
distemper 


1.12-1 


Red paint over rough 
sand plaster 


s 














Water, 
distemper 


1.01-4 


Wood sample with dark 
finish 


NS 




ss 


S 


S 


S 


ss 


resin 


1.02-1 


Wood sample with 
shiny surface 


NS 


NS 


ss 


s 


SS 


S 


SS 


resin 


1.09-2 


Wood sample 


NS 


NS 


ss 


s 


NS 




s 


resin 


1.14-1 


Wood sample, 
protected under 
hardware 


NS 


NS 


NS 


NS 


NS 


NS 


NS 


wax 




S= soluble 


SS^sll 


3htly sol 


able 


NS 


= not sol 


jble 







82 



Solubility testing was a simple, low-cost test for subsequent confirmation of the 
possible binders in the Heller House finishes. The original paint was determined 
to be water-based in all three samples tested, because it dissolved in water. The 
wood sample of greatest interest was number 1.14-1 because there is a waxy 
layer in it, possibly the finish prescribed by Frank Lloyd Wright in his original 
drawing. (Figure 1.11.) 

4.3.2 Fluorescence Microscopy for Binding Media Analysis 

Fluorescence microscopy allows certain materials that are visible under 
ultraviolet light to be observed. Following the preliminary solubility tests, 
fluorescence microscopy was employed to identify any organic materials in the 
plaster and wood samples. Therefore, it was used for the identification of organic 
materials in the samples. Fluorescence microscopy was also used for the 
clarification and elucidation of layers and materials that might otherwise not be 
obvious with regular reflected or transmitted light. 

The Microscopy Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania has a Nikon 
Alphaphot 2 microscope that is equipped for fluorescence microscopy using 
various filter systems depending on the fluorescence microscopy needed. To 
investigate auto-fluorescence, (when a material fluoresces on its own when 
excited by ultraviolet illumination), the BV-1A filter was used. For example, it is 
known that such things as carbonates and resins auto-fluoresce. 



83 



Secondary fluorescence is achieved through the use of fluorescent stains or 
fluorochromes. These are dyes that make otherwise non-fluorescent materials 
fluoresce by reacting with certain organic materials and staining them. 
Appropriate filter blocks for the microscope must be paired with fluorescent 
stains."* A variety of fluorochromes have been developed for the purposes of 
fluorescence microscopy. The stains and filters below were available in the 
laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. 

The BV-1A cube is used for observing secondary fluorescence with the stain 
TRITC, which is a stain that is used for tagging proteins. The XF-22 cube is used 
with FITC, another stain for proteins. A positive stain with FITC results in a 
yellow/green secondary fluorescence. The G1-B filter cube is used with the stain 
Rhodamine B, which stains positive in the presence of lipids. A positive stain with 
Rhodamine B fluoresces a bright red/orange color and is very difficult to detect 
because both the light filtered and the stain in this test are red. Additionally, the 
stain APC, or Antimony Pentachloride, fluoresces blue/white in the presence of 
natural resins. Finally, DCF fluoresces pink in the presence of saturated lipids 
and yellow in the presence of unsaturated lipids. 

Autofluorescence and the Heller House Samples 

For autofluorescence, the sample is viewed with the use of the BV-1A filter cube. 



"* Cassie Myers, Advanced Conservation Science Lecture, February 14, 2000. 

84 



It was speculated that many of the dark green window sashes in the Heller house 
(located in the living room, dining room, and stair hall) were covered with a later 
varnish later. To find evidence of this layer, sample 1.04-4 was examined for 
autofluorescence. The latest layer of this sample did autofluoresce providing 
evidence for possible varnish layer. (Figure 4.10.) This sample was compared to 
a protected sash sample that did not autofluoresce. 




Figure 4.10 Sample 1.04-4 from living room window sash. Ultraviolet light 

indicates the presence of a resinous layer over the original green paint. 



85 



Secondary Fluorescence and the Heller House Samples 

Fluorescent staining was employed for the identification of the paint binder. A 
sample from the living room, hall, and attic were tested for proteins and lipids, to 
find evidence of distemper versus oil paints. DCF was the stain used for lipids, 
and both FITC and TRITC were used for the identification of proteins. The 
samples did not stain positively for either binder. Therefore fluorescence 
microscopy was not successful for the identification of the paint binder. 



1,03-2 


Hall 


DCF 
FITC 


Negative 
Negative 


1.04-1 


Living room 


DCF 
FITC 


Negative 
Negative 


3.03-1 


Attic 


DCF 

FITC 

TRITC 


Negative 
Negative 
Negative 



Table 4.3 Testing for Secondary Fluorescence 

4.3.3 Infrared Spectroscopy for Binding Media Analysis 

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, or FTIR, is the study of infrared 
radiation on matter and is important because it can provide information on 
functional groups present in a molecule allowing for the identification of both 
organic and many inorganic materials. In IR Spectroscopy, the change in the 
vibrational energy level of a molecule is studied. When a sample is exposed to IR 
radiation, the molecules of the sample selectively absorb portions of the IR 
radiation causing vibrations in the material. The unabsorbed part of the radiation 
is passed through the sample and is measured and recorded as an infrared 
spectrum. Every unique compound produces a unique IR spectrum. The 

86 



intensity, on the y-axis, is plotted against, on the x-axis. Absorption bands that 
occur on the spectrum are directly associated with different parts of the molecule. 
The IR spectra are then interpreted to uncover the unknown material. 
Experienced analysts can recognize characteristic band positions, shapes, and 
intensities and can compare the results with reference standards available in the 
field.^ 

In architectural finish analysis, FTIR can be very helpful in the classification of 
binding media. Additionally, it can identify the presence of pigments and other 
organic and inorganic materials. Representative paint samples of the Heller 
House were analyzed at the Philadelphia Museum of Art under the direction Beth 
Price, Senior Scientist. The table below indicates the samples that were tested 
and the binders that were identified through this technique. 



Sample # 


Sample Description 


Possible Media 
Identified 


Computer Library 
Match 


1.04-1 


Original green paint from 
living room painted plaster 
sample 


protein 


Hide glue 


1 .03-2 


original orange paint from hall 
painted plaster sample 


polysaccharide 


corn starch 


1.12-1 


Original red paint from dining 
room painted plaster sample 


polysaccharide 


gum 


1.14-1 


Finish from protected wood 
sample, bathroom door 


wax 


beeswax 


1.08-3 


Finish from protected wood 
sample from double closet 
door, servants' hall 


resin 


Varnish and 
linseed oil 



Table 4.4 Samples Investigated with FTIR for binder identification 



Beth Price, Lecture on Infrared Spectroscopy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 20 March 2000. 

87 



A paint sample from the living room, sample 1.04-1, was tested and the 
characteristic peaks of proteins confirmed the presence of protein as a binder in 
the sample. (Figure 4.1 1 .) The binder was found to be either glue or milk, and the 
sample is therefore either a distemper or a casein paint. A glue distemper paint is 
more likely, because this was the closest match to the computer library of 
standards. However, the technology available cannot distinguish between 
proteins, since they have the same or very similar characteristic peaks in their IR 
spectra. Two other types of analysis, namely gas chromatography-mass 
spectrometry and reverse phase-high-pressure chromatography would be 
necessary to pinpoint the type of binder. These techniques were not available 
given the constraints of the study. 



88 




Date Mon Mar 20 14:01:33 2000 
Scans: 200 
ResolJtian: 4000 



PMAI2579 Heller house, living room, sam # 1 04-1 green paint yellow and clear area, area 2 



Figure 4.11 FTIR spectra of Sample 1.04-1 from the living room. The spectra 

indicate the characteristic peaks of protein, possibly a glue binder, in the original 
living room finish. 



89 



An orange paint sample from the hall, sample 1.03-2, underwent FTIR analysis. 
The spectrum indicated the clear presence of starch in the sample. (Figure 4.12.) 
Since starch was not known as a common binder in paint, four different portions 
of sample 1.03-2 were tested in order to clarify the results. Each time the 
characteristic peaks of polysaccharides appeared in the FTIR spectra and the 
computer library of standards that is linked to the FTIR system indicated that 
cornstarch had very similar FTIR spectra in relation to sample 1.03-2. Though 
starch is much less commonly known as a binder for paints, it has been 
mentioned historically as a binder for distemper and other water-based paints.® 



^AI258S H«llw home sample 1 .03-:. mostly calcitt w/ potyMcclmtde 




2500 2000 

W»vonumbw» (cm-1 ) 



Date: Sal May 09 17:06:23 1998 

8cara;1 

Raacfcilion: Unkfwwn 



PMAI1962 CORN STARCH ARGO 
90200009 



Figure 4.12 FTIR spectra of sample 1.03-2 from the hall indicate the 
presence of a polysaccharide, namely starch, as a binder. 



See section 2.3.1. 



90 



A sample from the dining room, 1.12-1, was analyzed with FTIR for binder 
identification. Here, the characteristic peaks of a gum-like polysaccharide were 
present. Close matches in the museum library were gum arable and gum 
tragacanth. The spectrum of sample 1.12 is shown below. (Figure 4.13.) Gum 
arable has been mentioned historically as a binder for distemper and other water- 
based paints. (See section 2.3.1.) Therefore, there were three different paint 
binders used in the three major first floor rooms. Each created a different type of 
distemper or water-based paint. 




2S00 2000 

Wavenumbert (cm-l) 



Dale Fri Apr21 15:08:56 2000 

Scana:200 

R«3oMlon: 4.000 



PMAI2e70 H«ller1.12-1 Original rM paint layw dining room 



Figure 4.13 FTIR analysis of sample 1.12-1 illustrates the presence of a gum-like 
polysaccharide in the original red paint in the dining room. 



91 



Sample 1.14-1 was a wood sample taken from behind door hardware on the 
bathroom door on the first floor of the Heller House. After microscopic 
examination and solubility testing, it was postulated that there was a coating of 
wax on this sample. There was no evidence of any subsequent layers of either 
resins or paints over this sample. As mentioned previously, sample 1.14-1 is of 
Interest because it contains evidence of wax, which was Wright's original intent 
for the wood in the Heller House. With FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of 
beeswax were identified in this sample. (Figure 4.14 below.) Therefore, evidence 
of Wright's intended wood finish was found in this protected sample. 




2500 20OO 

W»»enunib«f» (cm-1) 



DM- Fit Feb » 1ft«1-3l 1897 
Son*' 1 

RMOMon: Unkncwn 



PWAI13«S Beeawax. bleacned. wMK, AUneh Cat No 24,322-1 
9110001$ 



Figure 4.14 FTIR Spectrum of sample 1.14-1 containing characteristic peaks of 
beeswax on the wood sample from bathroom door. 



92 



Sample 1.08-3 was another wood sample taken from the door of the closet in the 
servant's hallway. This sample, like all other samples other than 1.14-1, 
discussed above, had evidence of a resinous layer. This sample was analyzed 
for comparison against the wax sample above. The FTIR spectra obtained from 
this sample had characteristic peaks of resins. (Figure 4.15.) It is obvious that 
most of the wood in the Heller house today has a resinous finish. The evidence 
of resin on this sample suggests that subsequent finish treatments have been 
placed over the original wax finish of unknown dates. 




Figure 4.15 FTIR Spectra of sample 1.08-3 indicate the presence of a resin or 
varnish mixed with a small amount of oil on the wood from the hallway closet. 



93 



4.4 Pigment Identification 



A variety of techniques have been developed for pigment identification of 
architectural finishes. These include micro-chemical spot testing, visible and 
polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy 
dispersive analysis and electron dot mapping, FTIR, and X-ray diffraction. For the 
purposes of this project, visible and polarized light microscopy, scanning electron 
microscopy (SEM), with EDS and electron dot mapping, and FTIR were utilized. 
Micro-chemical spot testing often yields false results with pigment analysis. It 
was not possible to employ X-ray diffraction given the small amount of pigments 
available since the Laboratory for Research and Study of Materials at the 
University of Pennsylvania is not readily equipped for testing of such small 
amounts through X-Ray diffraction. 

4.4.1 Visible and Polarizing light microscopy 

The cross-sectional analysis of the various paint samples suggested a variety of 
pigments were used to create the original paints found in the Heller House. In 
four of the samples, 1.03-2, 1.04-1, 1.12-1, and 1.12-5, pigments were 
mechanically removed from the paint layers with a tungsten needle and were 
dispersed on a microscope slide. This involved removing enough pure pigment 
from the samples, placing them on a slide, dispersing the pigments with a cover 
slip, and mounting them permanently in this state with the use of Meltmount® 
mounting medium. After the pigments from each sample were dispersed 
separately, they were examined under the microscope and compared to the 

94 



dispersed pigments available in the reference slide particle library in the 
Microscopy Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. The dispersed samples 
were also visually compared to the McCrone particle atlas, which as contains 
microscopic images of various particles, including pigments/ They were also 
compared to a particle atlas that illustrates various particles. The pigments were 
matched up with a pigment in the library, and were examined under polarized 
light to identify whether or not they had the same optical properties. (Figure 4.16- 
14.19, C.1-C.5.) 

Through microscopic techniques, the following pigments were identified in the 
representative samples: 



SAMPLE USED FOR 
DISPERSION 


SAMPLE 
LOCATION 


COLOR OF 
PIGMENT 


PIGMENT 
IDENTIFIED 


1.03-2 


Hall 


Red 
Yellow 
Brown 


Yellow ochre 
Red ochre 


1 .04-1 


Living room 


Green 

Blue 

Yellow-brown 


Chrome green 
Prussian blue 
Yellow ochre 


1.12-1 


Dining room 


Red 
Black 


Burnt sienna 


1.12-5 


Dining room 


Metallic 


Copper 

(cuprous bronzing 

powder) 



Table 4.5 Pigment identification through sample dispersion 

Reflective particles in the drawing room ceiling sample (1.04-1) were analyzed 
for the presence of quartz. The reference quartz was used to compare to the 
reflective particles extracted from the surface of this sample. (Figure 4.16, 4.17.) 



^ Walter McCrone, The Particle Atlas, (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., 
1973) 

95 




Figure 4.16 reflective material extracted from sample 1.04-1, from the living room 
ceiling, optically similar to quartz. Magnification 200X. 







Figure 4.17 Reference sample of quartz. Note resemblance to sample 1.04-1 above. 
Magnification 100X. 



% 




Figure 4.18 Yellow pigments extracted from sample 1.03-2 from the hall, 
identified as yellow ochre. Magnification 200X. 




Figure 4.19 McCrone reference sample of yellow ochre pigments. Mag. 200X. 



97 



4.4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy for Pigment Identification 

Finish samples were analyzed for pigment content through infrared spectroscopy 
with the same technique described earlier for the characterization of binding 
media (section 4.3.3). During analysis for the binding media of samples 1.04-1, 
1.03-2, and 1.12-1, pigments were also identified. The green pigment present in 
the living room sample (1.04-1) had IR spectra characteristic of chrome green, 
which is a mixture of chrome yellow (PbCr04) and Prussian blue 
(FeNH4Fe(CN)6). (Figure 4. 20.) This confirmed the presence of chrome green in 
this sample that had been identified earlier through microscopy (section 4.4.1). 
Sample 1.04-1 also contained barite, BaS04, a white pigment often used as a 
filler. Additionally, the yellow pigment present in the orange paint from the hall 
was identified as goethite (FeOOH) or a form of yellow ochre. (Figure 4.22.) 
Sample 1.12-1 also contained the pigment barite. (Figure 4.23.) 

Additionally, the reflective particles from living room sample 1.04-1 were 
analyzed with FTIR. The FTIR spectrum for this sample contained the 
characteristic peaks of quartz, confirming the use of quartz in the original living 
room paint layer. (Figure 4.21.) 



98 



8 0.5 

p 0.0 
i§ 0.5 



0.0 



PMAI2575 Heller house, living room, sam # 1.04-1 green paint green particle area 1 




=>MAI2S76 Heller house, living room, sam # 1 .04-1 green paint green particle 2100 peak blanked 




8 

c 
a 

•e 0.5- 



1 .0 »MAI1054 BARITE (W/ VERY MINOR C-H IMPURITIES) # 2794 BaS04 



c =MAI2577 Heller house, living room, sam * 1.04-1 green paint green particle 1000-1200 blanked 

, ii 0.1 




i^i= J 



SMAI1982 CHROME GREEN HOUSE PAINT JULY 1927 PM/MK 1-39 fl 



0.0 

0.6 >>MAI1872 PRUSSIAN BLUE #1 WINDSOR NEWTON PMA# J-69 



S 04 

1 0.2 
* 0.0 



3500 3000 



2500 2000 1500 
Wavenumbers (cm-1) 



Date: Mon Mar 20 14:17:17 2000 
Scans: 200 
Resolutwn: 4.000 



PMAI2576 Heller house, living room, sam #1.04-1 green paint green particle area 1 



Figure 4.20 FTIR Spectra of Sample 1.04-1 indicating the presence of barite and 
chrome green pigment in the original paint layer in the living room. 



99 



0.00 
1.0 



i 0.4 



0.2 
0.01 



PMAI2669 Heltef 1 04-1 reflective particle in original green paint layer living room 



=MAI0485 QUARTZ #R1 7728 ARKANSAS 




3500 



2500 2000 

Wavenumbers (cn»-1) 



Dale: Fri Apr 2115:28:23 2000 
Scant: 200 
Resohilion: 4.000 



PMAI2669 Heller 1 04-1 reflective partde In original green paint layer living rooni 



Figure 4.21 FTIR spectum of reflective particles in the surface of sample 1.04-1 
from the living room. The particles are identified as quartz. 



100 




3500 



Dale:VimSt*mJ2 1112:352000 
Scam: 200 
Rmoh/tlon: 4.O0O 



3000 2S00 2000 1S00 

W«v«nonnb«r» (cnvl) 

PMAI2SS6 Me*w ho jse lanipla 1 .03-2. rad pwilM (go«IM)» w^ C«C03, cab) 



Figure 4.22 FTIR Spectra of sample 1.03-2 indicate the presence of the red pigment 
goethite (FeOOH) in the original paint layer in the hall. 



101 



0^ 
0.15 
010 
0.05 
0.00 



'MA12668 HeUef 1 12-1 original red paint layef dining room 




'MAI1054 BARITE (W/ VERY MINOR C-H IMPURITIES) i 2794 BaSCM 



'MAIISSe GUM TRAGACANTH SIGMA* G-1128 





3500 



2500 2000 

Wavnumbtft (cm-1) 



Data: Fh Apr 21 14:53:53 2000 
Scans: 200 
RMoMlan: 4.000 



PMAI2668H«tler 1.12-1 original red paint layar dining reom 



Figure 4.23 FTIR spectrum of sample 1.12-1 from the dining room indicates the 
presence of barite (BaS04) in the original red paint layer. 



102 



4.4.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy for Pigment Identification 

SEM/EDS 

Another resource available for the Identification of elements in a finish sample is 
the scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray 
analysis (EDS) for elemental identification. This technique can be useful in 
pigment identification of finish samples, because certain pigments contain 
indicative elements that can help identify them. 

SEM/EDS was used on three samples from the Heller House. The first was 
sample 1.04-7 which had a thin metallic layer. This gold-colored finish was found 
between wooden trim pieces in the living room and was a decorative finish 
emphasizing the different planes and spaces within the room. 

SEM/EDS identified characteristic peaks of copper and zinc and a trace of nickel 
in this thin metallic layer. (Figure 4.24.) Therefore, this finish was an imitation 
metallic finish, identified as a metallic flake or "bronzing powder" popular during 
the nineteenth and early-twentieth century. 



103 



X?Rfl7: .O.-Z2D_JcjE0 WJ.adoLJ ; Moji-e 

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Real: .:Zhhs rSKZBjSLaA 



L 



/ 



l\>\i^i^j 



K 



9.743 keU 

ch H97= 

Sample 1.04-6 Living Room metallic finish 



20.0 > 
23 cts 



Figure 4.24 EDS spectrum of metallic layer in living room indicating the 
presence of Copper, Zinc, and Nickel in the bronzing powder. 



104 



The second sample analyzed with this technique was sample 1.12-5, taken from 
the dining room in an area between the parallel strips of wood trim located in the 
alcove. Here analysis identified the presence of copper exclusively in this layer. 
(Figure 4.25.) Therefore, It is possible that a different colored bronzing powder 
was used in the two rooms. 



X-RRV: 0-20 keU Nindow : None 

Live: 605 Prsset: 60s Remaining: Qs 

Real: 63s 5'/. Dead 




ki£ukd 




FS=51 1 
MEM1:6R 



4.7S3 keU 

ch 2H9= 



9.9 > 
7 cts 



Sample 1.12-5 Dining Room metallic finish 



Figure 4.25 EDS spectrum of sample 1.12-5 indicating the characteristic 
peaks of copper in the bronzing powder. 



105 



The third sample analyzed with SEM/EDS was 1.12-1, containing original red 
paint from the dining room wall. SEM/EDS analysis indicated the presence of iron 
in the red colorant used for the dining room finish, suggestive of a red ochre. 
Incidentally, lead was ruled out as a possible pigment used in this room, because 
the characteristic peaks of lead were not present in the spectra collected. (Figure 
4.26 below.) 



L i v^e ! 6&S— Pr-e^ e t s SQ s R ema i t> r ng : 0-s 




FS= 8K 
MEM1:6R 



9.503 keU 

ch 435= 



19.7 > 
312 cts 



Sample 1.12-1 Dining Room 



Figure 4.26 EDS Spectrum of original paint layer of sample 1.12-1 indicates 
the presence of an iron-based pigment in the dining room. 



106 



Electron Dot Mapping 

Electron dot mapping is another microscopic technique that was employed 
effectively with the Heller House samples. Using the scanning electron 
microscope, elements can be mapped across a given sample and the exact 
locations and concentrations of elements were visually interpreted. This 
technique is especially valuable when analyzing samples containing various 
layers and materials. Chosen elements can be keyed into the computer and the 
computer quantitatively collects the presence of the elements. 



A number of Heller House samples were analyzed using the electron dot 
mapping. The following chart indicates the elements and possible pigments 
identified through this technique. 



Table 4.6 Pigment Identification through Electron Dot Mapping 

107 



Sample # 


Original layer 


Elements detected in 
original layer 


Possible pigment 


1.01-5 


Brown 


Iron (Fe) 


Yellow Ochre 
Umber 


1.03-5 


Green over orange 


Iron (Fe) 
Barium (Ba) 


Red Ochre 
Yellow Ochre 
Barite 


1.04-1 


Green with reflective 
material 


Iron (Fe) 
Barium (Ba) 


Yellow Ochre 
Barite 
Prussian blue 


1.04-6 


Metallic layer 


Copper (Cu) 
Zinc (Zn) 


Bronzing powder 


1 .04-7 


Ochre over green 


Iron (Fe) 
Barium (Fe) 


Yellow Ochre 
Barite 


1.12-1 


Red 


Iron (Fe) 


Rec Ochre 
Burnt Sienna 


1.12-5 


Metallic layer 


Copper (Cu) 


Bronzing powder 


2.01-2 


Light green-blue 


Calcium (Ca) 


Whiting 


2.12-1 


green 


Iron (Fe) 
Calcium (Ca) 
Barium (Ba) 


Ochre 

Whiting 

Barite 



Results from electron dot mapping of sample 1.04-6 illustrate the merits of this 
technique. This sample contains the metallic layer believed to be a bronzing 
powder that was part of the original living room decoration. The microscope is 
focused on a specific area of the cross section and the area is scanned for 
possible elements present. The sample is then mapped according to location and 
concentration of a given element in the chosen area. Copper, zinc, magnesium, 
lead, titanium, calcium, potassium, and silicon were mapped across the chosen 
area of sample 1.04-6 to identify the components in the metallic finish. The 
mapping indicated a dense concentration of copper and a small amount of zinc in 
the layer. (Further results from electron dot mapping located in Appendix D.) 




Figure 4.27 Scanning Electron Image of metallic layer in sample 1.04-6 from the 
living room metallic finish. The center line is the location of the metallic finish in the 
sample. 



108 



x-ray Display 1 



Acquisition completed. 




Figure 4.28 EDS spectrum collected from metallic layer of sample 1 .04-6. 



109 




Figure 4.29 Electron dot map of sample 1 .04-6. Copper is evident in the 

metallic layer. 



110 



4.5 Plaster Classification 



In the Heller house two original plaster types were found. Upon initial inspection 
of the samples, it was determined that the three primary rooms on the first floor- 
the living room, dining room, and hall-and the attic hallway and bedrooms were 
finished with a rough sand-float plaster over which paint was directly applied. All 
other rooms in the Heller House were finished with a rough scratch coat followed 
by a white, smooth finish coat. The finish coat was beige in color and had 
occasional inclusions of sand. In addition to the original plaster types, newer 
plaster was found where there have been additions or alterations made to the 
house. (Figures 4.30-4.32.) 




Figure 4.30 Photomicrograph of sand-float plaster. Magnification 200X. 



Ill 




Figure 4.31 Vestibule sample 1.01-2 is an example of plaster scratch coat 
and finish coat in many of the rooms. Magnification SOX. 




Figure 4.32 Example of the finish plaster coat. Color ranges from beige to 
white. Occasional inclusions of sand occur in this coat. 

112 



4.5.1 Visual description 

Each plaster sample was inspected for its visual characteristics. Each of the 
samples fell into one of the following three categories: 

1 . Original rough sand float plaster 

2. Original rough scratch coat over which a smooth finish coat was applied 

3. Modern plaster over old finish coat 



Room Name 


Room Number 


Plaster type 


vestibule 


1.01 


2 


reception 


1.02 


2 


hall 


1.03 


1 


Living room 


1.04 


1 


Servants hall 


1.08 


2 


kitchen 


1.09 


3 


Dining room 


1.12 


1 


Telephone room 


1.13 


2 


hall 


1.14 


2 


bathroom 


1.15 


2 


Master bedroom 


2.01 


2 


bedroom 


2.04 


2 


bedroom 


2.05 


2 


Hall 


2.06 


2 


bathroom 


2.08 


2 


bedroom 


2.09 


2 


Closet 


2.10 


2 


Closet 


2.11 


3 


Sewing room 


2.12 


3 


Maid's closet 


2.13 


2 


Hall, Attic 


3.03 


1 



Table 4.7 Plaster Types found in each room 



113 



4.5.2 Particle Size Analysis for Plaster Characterization 

To assist In the characterization of the scratch coat plaster in the Heller house, a 
particle size distribution test was run. It was not possible to run this test for the 
sand float plaster, because a very small amount of sand-float plaster was 
removed from the Heller House (less than 5 grams). For any accuracy in this 
test, 20 grams of material is required.^ Also, this test was not was not run for the 
finish coat because its particles are too small for this test to be valuable. 

Particle size distribution involves selecting a representative plaster sample, 
drying it to a constant weight, crushing it with a mortar and pestle, and sieving 
the material through a stack of sieves ranging from large to small. The sieve 
stack used for both tests contained 6 sieves ranging largest to smallest from 2.36 
mm to 75 microns. Particle size is usually given in terms of equivalent particle 
diameter, but can also be given interns of sieve size. ASTM standards were used 
in this test and therefore the particles were grouped into gravel, sand, silt, and 
clay according to the dimensions illustrated below. Most of the sample ranged 
from fine to coarse sand, while a very small percentage, 9%, fell into the silt or 
fines category (below 75 microns.) 



' Jeanne Marie Teutonico, Particle Size analysis in A Laboratory Manual for Achitectural 
Conservators (Rome: ICCROM, 1988), 73. 

114 



002 



006 



60 mm 



particle size 1 5 

Sieve Oesignation 

(q) U.S.A. ASTM 0422 



fine ; medium IcoarK 



SAND 



7S 425 |im 200 4 75 

I III 

NO.2O0 No.40 MOkW Na4 



COB8LCS^ 



76-2mm 
I 
3tnch 



CLAf 



fine < medium coorsc 



SILT 



line mediimr (Dorse 



^ 



SAND 



Yine medium Icoarse 



GRAVEL 



ooseus 



eoW-PCRS 



porticle size 2 6 25 ~h6 200 600 nm 2 2 55 60 eoOmm 

(b) Oreot Bfitoin 8S:377: 1975 



Figure 4.33 Particle size distribution from Teutonico, 73. 

The chart below indicates the results from the test of the scratch coat plaster. 
The initial mass of the plaster was 7.65 grams. The distribution of particle size is 
indicated. 



Sieve # 


Diameter 


Weight retained (g) 


Percent retained 


8 


2.36 mm 


.2 


2.6 


16 


1.18mm 


.25 


3.3 


30 


600 um 


.45 


5.9 


50 


300um 


.96 


12.7 


100 


150 um 


5.28 


70 


200 


75 um 


.37 


4.9 


PAN 




.07 


.9 



Table 4.8 Sieve Analysis 



115 



4.5.3 X-Ray Diffraction for Plaster Characterization 

X-Ray Diffraction was employed to determine specific components of the plaster 
binder. X-Ray Diffraction involves aiming a beam of X-Rays onto a sample 
containing crystals. The diffraction pattern of the crystalline sample can be used 
to identify a specific material because every crystalline substance has a unique 
XRD pattern, or "fingerprint".^ 

Two samples from the Heller House plasters were analyzed with X-Ray 
diffraction. The first sample tested was taken from the finish coat from the 
upstairs hall (room 2.06). The finish coat was scraped off of the sample and 
ground with a mortar and pestle. The second sample was taken from the fines 
(particles smaller than 75 um) from the binder of the sand-float plaster of the 
living room (room 1.04), in order to identify the elements of the plaster binder. 
The fines were separated with sieves whereas the particles small enough to fit in 
the pan, assumed to be the major component of the sand-float plaster binder, 
were ground up and prepared for the XRD analysis. 

The major component of the finish plaster coat that was analyzed with XRD 
(sample 2.06-1) was identified as calcium sulfate hydrate, otherwise known as 
gypsum. This result is not surprising because plasters are often composed of 



Elsa Bourguignon, Sarah Gray, Zana Wolf, Analysis of Clay Minerals by X-Ray Diffraction, 
Report for Advanced Conservation Science, University of Pennsylvania, 1999. 

116 



gypsum or plaster of Paris historically. The XRD spectra collected contain the 
characteristic peaks of gypsum. (Figure 4.34.) 

The spectra collected for the sand-float plaster binder (sample 1.04-5) are less 
clear. Characteristic peaks of quartz, calcium hydroxide, dolomite, magnesium 
oxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium arsenate, and magnesium hydroxide were 
found. The substance tested, which was the fines resulting from sieving of the 
plaster, is probably a mixture of both plaster binder and small aggregate particles 
of the plaster. This is probably a lime-based plaster, because of the presence of 
calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. (Figure 4.35.) 

Z14198.RAW 



HELLER HOUSE 



I 



Um^mJV 



Wy/t*^'W 



\^I\H 



4 



v^ 



w< 




V 



p ' | i ppj i |i |i|' f|iji ' | i | i| lp | j | . '| S|i |'iii| ^ | i| l | ' i i i | i |i' | i [l|iV i i|>V'|M' l ''l' l' PV I'l ' l ' ] ' l' l'l ' 'l'['l' I M'l 

10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. 65. 
Sample 2.06-1 finish coat 

Figure 4.34 XRD spectra from finish coat plaster of sample 2.06-1 from the 
upstairs hall indicating the presence of gypsum in the finish coat. 



117 



Z14261.flAW 




5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. 65. 
XRD Spectrum of 1.13-1, plaster binder 



Figure 4 35 XRD Spectra of sample 1.13-1 indicates the presence of quartz, 
calcium hydroxide, dolomite, calcium carbonate, and many other possible 
materials in the binder. This is probably a lime-based plaster. 



118 



CHAPTERS CONCLUSIONS 



5.1 Summary of Heller House Finishes 



5.1.1 Original Plaster 

There are two original plaster types evident in the Heller House. The rooms on 
the main axis of the first floor--the living room, hall, and dining room-were 
finished with sand-float plaster, while all other rooms except for the attic were 
done in a traditional gypsum finish coat. Research of original finishes of other 
early Wright houses reveals that that he often specified sand-float plaster. The 
treatment of the Heller House is interesting because Wright used the sand-float 
plaster type in the three public rooms of the main axis, while he used a traditional 
gypsum finish coat plaster in all of the peripheral rooms. Wright's preference for 
sand-float plaster indicated his use of different materials for the establishment of 
a hierarchical room order. The sand float plaster provides an interesting texture 
in conjunction with the original wall finishes. 

5.5.2 Original Wall Paints 

To identify the type of paint Wright originally used in the interior of the Heller 
House, the three primary rooms on the first floor were investigated for the 
identification of the paint binder. Analysis confirms that the walls of the main 
rooms of the first floor were originally finished with a distemper or water-based 
paint: The paint in the living room was found to be proteinaceous, probably 
either an animal glue or casein, the paint in the hall was bound with a starch, and 

119 



the paint in the dining room was bound with a gum. Original paint samples from 
these rooms, regardless of binder type, are matte and pigment rich, and display 
subtle color variability due to uneven pigment dispersion. The use of this 
pigment-rich, matte distemper paint in conjunction with the original sand-float 
plaster provided an effect dependent on high color variation and low surface 
reflectance. It is quite certain that the paint colors for these rooms were specified 
by Wright and were custom-made at the house. It is also possible that the house 
painters chose the binders for the paint, based on their knowledge of specific 
pigments and the surface effects that were desired. It is not known whether the 
paint in other rooms was custom-mixed or commercially prepared. Many of the 
original layers from these rooms have the same visual characteristics as the first 
floor paints, but they were not analyzed in great detail. (Figure 5.1 below.) 




later finish layers 



original green finish layer 



original finish plaster 



Figure 5.1 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.12-1 from the second floor sewing 

room illustrating the similarities in composition and texture between original wall paint of the first 
and second floors. Magnification SOX. 



120 



5.1.3 Original Wall Pigments 

The original paint layers in the living room, dining room, and hall were analyzed 
for pigment content. In general, earth pigments with some synthetics were 
identified. The living room finish is a mixture of yellow ochre, (composed of silica, 
alumina, and goethite) and Prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide), the hall includes 
yellow ochre (yellow) and goethite (red), and the dining room paint contains burnt 
sienna (a dark red pigment). All of these pigments are iron-based pigments. 
Additionally, barite, or barium sulfate, was found through electron dot mapping of 
these samples. This pigment was probably used as a white filler or extender. 
Calcium was also evident during scanning electron microscopy, especially in the 
hall sample, and therefore whiting, or calcium carbonate, probably used as a filler 
or extender, was also a component of these distemper paints. 

5.1.4 Wood Finishes 

Evidence of beeswax was found in an isolated wood sample form the first floor 
bathroom door. If in fact this was the original finish in the entire house, as 
specified by Wright in his original drawing, the effect on the wood would be 
entirely different than it is today, with the later varnishing campaigns. The wood 
would be lighter in color, the graining would be more evident, and the relationship 
between the wood and all other finishes would be very different. In addition, there 
is evidence that many of the oak floors have been sanded. 



121 



The window sash in the living room and dining room was sampled for the 
identification of original finish. It was found that varnish was later applied to the 
interior sash of the windows in both rooms, altering the original effect of the 
green paint. 

Exterior wood samples of the art glass casement window in the master bedroom 
(sample 2.01-1) and another bedroom (sample 2.05-2) revealed the original paint 
layer to be a light orange-beige over a primer. The current paint is much more 
yellow than the original finish. 

5.1 .5 Interior Color Schemes 

It is important to note that the paint colors in the Heller House were matched with 
matte Munsell standards to small, isolated samples. Therefore, while the color 
selected is representative of the color in the sample, the original finish color may 
have varied slightly through a given room, especially given that some of these 
paints were custom-mixed on site. 

The majority of the original paint colors used on the first floor of the Heller House 
were reds and oranges. (Table 4.1.) The exception to this is the living room, 
which was originally painted in green. In order to articulate the walls in the rooms, 
bronzing powder was used in both the living room and dining room. Additionally, 
in the living room, the area between the ceiling and the wall was painted in a 
yellow ochre paint. Though the original distemper wall paint in the living room 

122 



was matte and densely pigmented, there is evidence of quartz added to this 
finish, producing a subtle reflectance to the wall surfaces. The hall was finished 
in order to establish a connection between the living room and dining room since 
the living room and dining room colors, green and red, were used in areas of the 
hall. 

Original paint colors were not found for the main kitchen, though the servants' 
dining room, connected to the kitchen, was a dark red, much darker than the 
dining room paint. The interior wood sash in the living room and dining room was 
dark green, in harmony with the living room color and in contrast with the dining 
room. 

On the second floor, the colors are generally lighter and unsaturated. A variety of 
colors were used, including light blue-green in the master bedroom (2.01), a light 
red-orange in another bedroom (2.05), and a yellow-green in the sewing room 
(2.12). It is likely that each of the second-floor rooms were painted in a different 
color. Many of these original layers were higher in reflectance and gloss and 
pigments were more evenly dispersed than in the first floor paints. The second 
floor hall was finished in a different color than the first floor hall, and the transition 
between the two colors occurs at the picture rail on the main stairs. The first floor 
hall was a light yellow-orange while the second floor hall is orange with much 
more red in it. (Table 4.1.) The attic was originally finished in a green over sand- 
float plaster in the hall and bedrooms. There is evidence of bead board originally 

123 



in the play room. The windows on the east of the attic were originally finished in 
dark green over a primer. 

5.1.6 Later Finish Layers 

Many of the samples extracted form the Heller house included many layers of 
paint. Though later layers were not studied in detail, certain characteristic 
emerged in many of the rooms. A layer of canvas was paced in many of the 
rooms early in the Heller House history, perhaps to obscure cracks of failing 
finishes. In the stratigraphy, the canvas is the second layer, directly after the 
original finish. Many of the rooms have evidence of many layers of white and 
beige, soon after the original finish. 

For example, in the living room, the stratigraphy includes original green, canvas 
layer, later green, and may layers of white. Interestingly, many of the second 
floor bedrooms exhibit many--upwards of 25--layers of paint. In addition to wall 
finishes, the wooden elements have been refinished. There is evidence of 
sanding of many of the floors and varnishing and painting of wood trim and 
doors. 

5.1.7 Wright's Intentions 

According to his drawing, Wright's original intent for the Heller House was for the 
interior walls to be of rough sand finish and it was found that the main rooms on 
the first floor and attic were in fact finished with this technique. Wright intended 

124 



the house to be trimmed in quartered and waxed white oak. From the analysis 
conducted in this study, it can be stated that the original wood finish was 
probably carried out, as evidenced by the discovery of beeswax on sample 1.14- 
1. The trim has evidence of later darker varnish finishes that obscure this original 
intent. According to Wright, the plaster was to be saturated with pure color. 
Analysis of the original wall finishes found that the paints were densely 
pigmented, and the original colors were strong earth tones. Wright intended the 
interior color scheme to be bronze and dull green. This color scheme was 
executed in the living room, while the other spaces were finished in many 
different colors. 

5.2 Recommendations for Restoration 

In order to experience the full effect of Wright's design concepts for the the 
interior of the Heller House, the original finishes — especially in the first floor 
public rooms — should be restored. For this to be accomplished, the original sand- 
float plaster in the living room, dining room, and hall, currently lost under many 
layers of paint, must be uncovered. For the paint replication, an number of paint 
companies exist that specialize in the formulation of traditional distemper paints. 
These include Farrow & Ball and Rose of Jherico, both located in England.^ The 
soft distemper available through Rose of Jherico contains titrated calcium 
carbonate, dehydrated animal skin glue, and traditional pigments.^ The soft 



^ Mary Culver provided information about these companies. 
^ From specification sheet for Rose of Jherico soft distemper. 



125 



distemper available through Farrow & Ball is a water dispersion of pigments in a 
cellulose glue and natural resin binder dispersed in water.^ Client specified colors 
are available through these companies. 

Another option would be the preparation of the finishes on-site by a restoration 
painter. The components of the paint, including pigments, glue, and whiting, can 
be acquired through paint material and pigment companies, such as Kremer 
Pigments, located in New York City. If the original effect of the living room 
surface with the reflective quartz particles is to be replicated, on-site preparation 
is required. 

Wood trim is a large and significant component of the interior finishing scheme of 
the Heller House. Since these surfaces contain evidence of varnish layers, 
refinishing tests must be conducted to establish the safest method, these layers 
should be removed in-situ, and the wood should be finished with a durable wax 
finish, such as carnauba wax. 

5.3 Recommendations for Further Study 

The study of the interior finished of the Heller House is no small task. With more 
time, resources, and visits to the house, further study could continue in many 
areas. These areas would include a more extensive literature survey of turn-of- 
the-century paint formulas. The three original paints studied in the first floor of the 

^ From specification sheet for Farrow & Ball soft distemper. 

126 



Heller House had different binders. It would be interesting to know how common 
starch and gum were used as custom binders in water-soluble distemper paints. 

Some previous owners of the house are still alive and could offer their 
recollections of the interior. This might provide further information regarding 
dates of finish campaigns. 

While many finishes analyses of Wright houses were studied, there have been a 
number of houses investigated for paint finishes that have not been mentioned or 
studied during this report. In time, a database of all finish information of Wright 
houses should be compiled. As a part of the recommendations for the restoration 
of the Heller House, it would be helpful to survey all Wright houses that have 
been restored, in order to be familiar with the modern solutions for replication of 
original finishes. Throughout the study, a number of significant steps in 
documentation have been taken to ensure a record of the original fabric of the 
house. These steps should be included in the guidelines for the conservation of 
Frank Lloyd Wright houses so that original finish investigations are sufficiently 
documented. 

Finally, there is significant information regarding the kitchen in the form of a 
cassette tape recorded by George Watson, a former owner. This information 
should be interpreted and plans of the original kitchen should be constructed. 
Additionally, twelve finish samples were removed from the porch during the site 

127 



visit, in the hopes of identifying its relative date of construction. Though these 
samples were not analyzed die to time constraints, they are preserved and 
photomicrographs have been taken so that this analysis can be completed in the 
future. 



128 



APPENDIX A 
Archival Information 



129 



»193 PATTI 3^X133S6 TTnTB^.Sm AVBTOBjCKICJifiO 



D&cr Mifio SVffli . lfcr,^ri^t wva {jflftd to lis^r 

froa you In his ^oodlojoi Avcntw liouo» Imilt fot 

Xsodoro Sollos^ 4e ?&J?3 9* '94 and h* ea^eC aa 

*Q \-rriXo to ymv saying that vo have no c^afta 

on t>ds !w^i^ Wro in tho^^jnort but tljftt uftvr 

•'a i'c^^im to 'Tioco.'isln In tha iprliig ha •fllll . atop In io 

MO yon so«otlr>o nlion her Is in Ohlcafic* nvAmfiko 

Meantlao Aon' t ?AT>I? anytMngo 



SlnoftwJy, 

Hviijoao HanHBllnk 

S«oratary to ?renk tloj^a Wrt^^t 

7 A I. J -5 SIB 

pjiosnrxtARX?<oiJA 

J^iixsh 7th, 1939 



Figure A.1 1939 letter from the secretary to Frank Lloyd Wright to 
Miss Patti Fox, owner of the Heller House. Courtesy of the Frank 
Lloyd Wright Archives. 



130 







Ajjt. 2. 

4/03 K. ith Avo., 

Fhosnix, 

14 jBMuary 1»4» 

Dear lir. Wrifjhtj 

Our children in Chicn/ro, Dr. and iirs. Oeorps H. 
Vfatson, havo recently purchasod and inoved into the 
Heller House at 613^ iToodlawn Are, whioh you builT; 
a number of ye<xr« ri;o. V/hen we return to Cliicar,o in 
April v/e «r8 to oocvipy the five room pent-house' 
apartment atop tiie main structure. 

'.Ve would like very rauoh to ceet the /wnoue 
architect of our new homo and to see if possible a 
sketch of vhe room arron^enont and to ^lean any other 
inforra'.tion about the place which y,-.u my cnre to 
pive us. V>'e huvo Ion-; been interested in v^ur Yfork, 
have ref.d yc-ur autobiography and when we ^et settled 
in Chiouco ior the Muim.er, wo hope to visit nejiy of 
your buildinfxs. 

■>Ve would (greatly ap(,re.-.ic.te your kind nermisHion 
tc ce.ll on y^u briofly i.t Taliesin .Vest nt kny iirjc 
convenient to you, iind encloso a self addressed enveiooe 
for your, convenience in reply, 

KeEpootl\illy yours, 

Kr. & Urs, CeorKe V Orill. 

Ur, Frank Lloyd I7rirht, 
Taliesin West, 
Phcenix, 



Figure A.2 1949 Letter from Mr. and Mrs. George W. Grill 

to Frank Lloyd Wright requesting a meeting. Courtesy of the Getty 
Research Institute Archives. 



131 




Figure A.3 1901 Chicago City Directory lists Isidore Heller's home and 
business address. 




h -4110 Indiana a- 
C5»» Wabash a» h 
res Aurora, Ela" 
. -184; Lasalle ^ 
h 602;. +M ■ 
: h -l^T 8 Waller 

h S2i: W B9th 
h 1068 N OaVley 
180 Armitage ay 
. 20a OsKOod 
it 1347 Lincoln a 
Bmfcr h S033. 5tl 
hlniat h 313 W, 
L«rr h 321 W 58 
1204 Bryn Mawr 

If & Rathman) 5< 



WUllam h 1166 
h 2739 Shields ai 

W Kandolph h 

103 John£on 

h 1031 N Oakli 
lor h 1031 N Oa 
ber 470. 37th h .' 
rb«r 384, 35th h 

st«noK J3S W 

artes H h IMl K *-airneja aT- : 
cph h 271, 42d 
her bds 6320 Uhodea ar 
3243 Forest ar 
,5029 Indiana ay 
i Eiich bldg 3tk yds h 7441 

h 49 O'Brien 
h 2635 State 
1076 Milwaukee ar 



HapTewoo3 ar ^~- 

Samuel peddler h 490 W 14tli 
Samuel rerttaiuTuit 179 W Madison 
Samuel salesman 717. 9 Jackson boui 
Samuel saloon &45 3 Canal 
Samuel tailor h 3.36 N Robey 
Samuel tailor h 409 W 13th 
Samuel tailor h 427 8 DnloQ 
Samnel trimmings 628 W 14th 
.Samuel h 637 N Maiilewood aT 
Samuel 0_^clk,919, 315 Ocarbom h 108 Oak- 

■wood boul 
Samuel O printer h 183 Caaa 
Sarah H Mrs h 2331 Wentworth ay 
^VOI>F•. SAYER. Jfc I1E.I.LEK. (Nicholas 

Wolf. Ge<w-Ke J S.iyer and Isidore Heller) 
' packers' and butchers' supplieH, Fulton aw 
' cor Peoria 

.Sidney O elk h 216H Mecca flats 
Sidney J elk 267 -North av.h 54 Lincoln ay 
biKiiuind B mngf 5th fl 208 Vanburen h 

4538 Indiana ay 
Simon china 1778 Milwaukee ay , 
Simon hardwaro SO W Randolph 
Simon peddler h 73rHa.stin«s 
Solomon E pres Wolf Bros Co 173-Clsrk b 

441 3 Mirshfield ay 
TlicobaJd lab h 0614 3 May 
Theo<iorc decorator h 41 South Water 
Theodore woodwkr h 853 Cortex 
ThecKloro H ir elk 2d 11 204 Dearborn h 4413 

Oakenvrald av 
Theodore K pressman h 4413 Uakeowald «» 
Theodore W driycr h 650 W I'oUc 
Thomas junk h 103 John^n 
Thomas piano Bnlsher h 1850 W Montana 
Til om as switchman h 11445-Michi?an ay^-— 
Thomas It stationer 252, 65th 
ValeiiUiie a>t h 12SO W 20tir 
Vtctorin* wid'Emll h 4154 F.llis ay 
Vincent drirer h rear 167 Racine ay 
Walburga wid Aloljr h 427 H May 
Wallace A engineer- h 329 Park ay 
>Xl"<^'' <^"^ h -"KU Cottage Groye ay 
JJilliam boimkr h 3404 9, Leayltt 
\yi liam elk h 1413 Wlltorixay 



t'Vank kinc 
Frank O < 
W 87 Ui 
Frank J t 
Frank t# c 
■Frederick 
Frederick 

ay 
George sal< 

ay 
George A i 
George B ; 
Grace Mrs 
Oustay rea 
Gny O elk 
Harry H (. 
h 147 A« 
Harry R 

yds h 82 

Hartvrl«' C 

Vlncenne 

H»nry 

Herman s£ 

South 
H & C 

776 W & 
Ida II ^Us- 
Isaac barti 
Isaao pcdd 
Isaac b K 
Isaac K • ( 
■aUe h 4 
Isidore elk 
I K & Co 

Lasalle 
Jacob h Zi 
Jennie wld 
443 8 , 
John dk i; 
.lohn forem 
John lab 1 
John mngr 
John shoen 
John E elk 
'John H 



Figure A.4 1904 Chicago City Directory. Isidore Heller's was part owner 
of Wolf, Sayer, & Heller packers' and butcher's supplies. 



132 



Ritnnl o( Euiklin; Pcraiiis !« Prramcr.i Sircamts 



teed by Hit Coramisioncf ol DaiJingi 



'^7 






S-i 



ts-t. 

. (sr 



tilt 

as- 
til 







f-u i.' - 



•.i3(,. a..d^ 















fMJ. « *« "I 
CUA. " '7 ty 

fii^ ,0 .. !V 

a^ /A Jl J, ( 

'kuii tj- 7; « 
^iUC^ .1 .. n 

.<l..<i(^ M '. i^y 
.6_c« J- ~ .-. 

5^ r;r:j; 



E:.A h rr jt 
^f^tjl^i *» J^ i^ 




Figure A.5 Record of building permit for the Heller House, 1897. 



133 



ornce or cook couhtv coRonn. 

:} fm CERTIFICATE OF DEATH. 






L Kkm^ I>K«Med Uajall) 

t E nx :. J' a>IOT-lw^;x„Tbtll 



1 AfO 



,. i~ 




ruWiMiOika^ 



-dvot- 



itt*, 1 — t-jUji. 6. Urod la nitoolj %ji^run,b> 



1. ^ llin b. Married. H Hill ■■<! I II iiiimiil Oca^ktin 
d FhM«( DMA 



■«B1A& Oce*f*il09: 



tl fhoe ii< iDsil BoldauK 




S'W , Hfbvat L 




- JUrw . . 1 I CA\Xt pr DEATH. . . TAjhoi-- 

rl i^o/C.i>. ;t) . J ^ I) 






"l")^" 



J»<t$ f (ggntCTl- 



fir,, n\./i\4Lr,. 



Figure A.6 1909 Death Certificate for Ida Heller 






iui^lul3)Hi.!i>o<ti:.iii4 'Widow. 

^yti. !aI| h#r lAtlf lrt*iWi<^e 

,J^I<k n<»lier^!l oefil JwrUeD'vral^ b|pki> 
If IMdCi^ 5Uil#l^ ipd t):^4t mother o|f ,Vl>iOhftild 
u*ki; KuxTn^ H . 0^4 Walter lN««f,! i^d 



on 








Figure A. 7 Obituary for Ida Heller 



134 




Figure A.8 1900 Census data from Woodlawn Avenue 




SK^'^yBTttiia. CENSUS OF THE U_ Jl'L^^^S'-^ ^^'- 




























Figure A. 9 1910 Census Data from Woodlawn Avenue 



135 





EAST ELEVATION 



SECTION "A-A" 



1 1 J- 1 rti I j^iii A * » M rii I M U 1 1 i -H - 1 7ll< ifjji 




wmm. 






** M d3 n 







-^= 



^^_ 



SO UTH ELEVATION 



, ISIDORE HELLEF! HOUSF 



Figure A.10 1956 Historic American Building Survey drawings of the Heller 
House. 



136 



APPENDIX B 
Cross-sectional Photomicrographs 



137 



VESTIBULE 
1.01 




later paint layers 

- original brown layer 

primer 



original finish plaster 



Figure B.1 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.01-6 illustrating 
original brown paint over a yellow primer in the vestibule. Magnification 25X. 




later paint layers 



canvas layer 



later pink and 
beige paint layers 

original brown layer 



Figure B.2 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.01-6 illustrating 
original and subsequent paint and canvas layers in the vestibule. Mag. 25X. 



138 



RECEPTION ROOM 
1.02 




ater paint layers 
original brown layer 



Figure B.3 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.02-4 illustrating 
original and subsequent paint layers in the reception room. Magnification SOX. 



* 








^ later white layer 

x^\ green paint layer 
^ yellow primer 

wood substrate 




:■ 4 








>, 


« 


1 

^*^'-* •;♦"%.£ *'♦--' 


A'u 

z^^ 




•-^rm^^^ 









Figure Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.02-2 illustrating early green 
paint layer and later white paint layer on the window sash in the reception room. 
Magnification 25X. 

139 



HALL 
1.03 




original paint layer 



sand-float plaster 



Figure B.5 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.03-2 illustrating 
original sand-float plaster and original paint layer in the hall. Magnification SOX. 




Figure B.6 Photomicrograph of sample 1.03-4 illustrating original red paint 

layer over orange paint in the southwest wall panel in the hall. It is believed that 
the red finish was added originally to complement the adjoining dining room. 
Magnification SOX. 



140 



HALL 
1.03 




iginal green paint 



ginal orange paint 



original plaster 



Figure B.7 Cross-sectional pliotomicrograph of sample 1.03-5 illustrating 
original green finish over the orange finish on the southeast wall panel in the 
hall. The same green finish was used in the adjoining living room. Mag. SOX. 



141 



HALL 
1.03 




later paint layers 



canvas layer 

original green decorative paint layer 
ginal paint layer 



Figure B.8 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.03-5 illustrating all 
paint and canvas layers from the southeast wall panel in the hall. Mag. 25X. 



142 



LIVING ROOM 
1.04 




original green paint layer 



original sand-float plaster 



Figure B 9 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-1 illustrating the 
original sand-float plaster and original paint layer in the living room. Mag. SOX. 




green paint layer 
green paint layer 

white primer 



wood substrate 



Figure B 10 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-2 illustrating 
the original green paint layers on the window sash in the living room. Mag. SOX. 



143 



LIVING ROOM 
1.04 








green paint layer 
metallic layer 



yellow primer 



■'-1 




original sand-float plaster 



^^ 



Figure B.11 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-6 illustrating 

original bronzing powder used between wood bands in living room. Mag. SOX. 




inal ochre paint layer 



original green paint layer 



.H^ 



i 



V 



original sand-float plaster 



Figure B.12 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-7 illustrating 
original ochre paint layer from living room banding between wall and ceiling. 
Magnification SOX. 



144 



LIVING ROOM 
1.04 



■ 


■ 










■ 
■If 

m 


\j later finish layers 


^^ 










li 




"^~^\ canvas layer, unknown date 




I 


^^^E ' ^^^^^^1 


^\ original ochre finish 



Figure B.13 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.04-7 illustrating 

original ochre paint layer and subsequent paint and canvas layers in the living 
room. Magnification 25X. 



145 



SERVANT HALL 
1.08 



■^■H 




^^■^^^" 


^^H 




H 


^^|p>^ ^ 


^ ". % 


I 




^1 


^^^^^H^^^H. 








^fl 




iiiii# ^^liS 


K^.!!:: 


\ 








original paint layer 








original finish plaster 



Figure B.14 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.08-1 illustrating 
original red-orange paint layer and plaster in the servant hall. Magnification SOX. 




ater paint layers 
ginal orange finish 



original finish plaster 



% 



Figure B.I 5 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.08-5 illustrating 
original plaster and original and later paint layers in the hall closet. Mag. 25X. 



146 



SERVANTS' DINING ROOM 
1.09 




later paint layers 
- / original paint layer 
primer 



m-^ '^ ^. 




original finish plaster 



original scratch coat 



Figure B 16 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.09-3 illustrating 

original plaster and dark red paint in the servants* dining room. Mag. 25X. 



147 



PANTRY 
1.11 




modern paint layers 



canvas layer 



modern plaster 



Figure B. 17 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.11-1 illustrating 
recent finish layers in the pantry. Magnification 50X. 



148 



DINING ROOM 
1.12 



B|W 


• •< 


^ ^^l^^^^^i ^I^^^^^^^^^^H 




mhi 


IT 


H ^^^p^«Bi^ ^^ 


\^ later paint layer 
original paint layer 


^H| 


i.^-- 

k 




original sand-float plaster 


■ **^ 


^ 


# 




i *. 







Figure B.18 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.12-1 illustrating 

original sand-float plaster and original red paint layer. Magnification SOX. 



«- 1 


{K;^ 


^ ^H 




:if ,-^r-^--"^) 


4 tIf t*"*^-* ■ "^ 




'^,: 


^ 


.^^^ metallic layer 






t 


primer 


r 

r. 


♦ 


r 


original sand-float plaster 



Figure B.19 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.12-5 illustrating the 
bronzing powder originally located between wood bands in the dining room 
alcove. Magnification SOX. 

149 



DINING ROOM 
1.12 




Figure B.20 Cross-sectional photomicrograph illustrating original green paint 
layers of dining room window sash. Note later varnish layer. Magnification SOX, 



150 



TELEPHONE ROOM 
1.13 




original paint layer 



Ml^ 




finish plaster 
scratch coat 



Figure B.21 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.13-1 Illustrating 
original spratch coat, finish coat, and paint layer in the telephone room. Mag. 25X. 




ater paint layers 



canvas layer 
paint layer 



Figure B.22 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.13-1 illustrating later 
paint and canvas layers in the telephone room. Magnification 25X. 



151 



ELEVATOR HALL 
1.14 




later paint layer 



original paint layer 



original plaster layer 



Figure B.23 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.14-3 illustrating 
original orange-red paint layer in elevator hall. Magnification SOX. 




post-elevator paint layers 
post-elevator plaster 



Figure B. 24 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.14-2 illustrating 
plaster and original paint from date of elevator addition. Magnification 25X. 



152 



BATHROOM 
1.15 




later paint layers 
original paint layer 



plaster layer 



Figure B.25 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.15-1 illustrating 
original orange paint layer in first floor bathroom. Magnification SOX. 



153 



MASTER BEDROOM 
2.01 




later paint layers 
original paint layer 
original finish plaster 



Figure B.26 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.01-2 illustrating 
original and subsequent paint layers in the master bedroom. Magnification 25X. 




■i^^ 



ater paint layers 
original paint layer 

primer 



wood substrate 



I T'\\*« I '^'^ "'^ » 



W><:^ 



Figure B.27 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.01-1 illustrating 
original and subsequent paint layers in the master bedroom art glass window 
sash. Magnification 25X. 



154 



BEDROOM 
2.04 




present paint layer 



ater paint layers 
ariy paint layers 
riginal finish piaster 



Figure B.28 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sarnple 2^04-1 illustrating 

eLrli and subsequent paint layers in bedroom 2.04. Magnification 25X. 



155 



BEDROOM 
2.05 




Figure B. 29 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.05-4 illustrating 

the original plaster and paint layers in bedroom 2.05. Magnification 50X. 




Figure B.30 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.05-2 illustrating 

primer and 5 beige paint layers on the bedroom window exterior. Mag. 25X. 



156 



BEDROOM 
2.05 



f J"* ' * ' •^' * . r - *• \ 




Hi ■ * - -•* \ 


"M many paint layers 


'"'"'^«p-» ^"■■"' \ 




\ plaster layer 


- 


plaster scratch coat 



Figure B.31 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.05-1 illustrating 

many paint layers in bedroom 2.05. The original finish is not present in this 
sample. Magnification 25X. 



157 



UPSTAIRS HALL 
2.06 





later paint layer 



original paint layer 



original finish plaster 



Figure B.32 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.06-1 illustrating 

the original plaster and red-orange paint in the upstairs hall. Note the treatment 
is different than the downstairs hall (sample 1.03-2). Magnification SOX. 




original paint layer 



original finish plaster 



Figure B.33 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.06-3 again 

illustrating the original finish treatment in the upstairs hall. This sample was 
taken from the stairway between two widows. Magnification SOX. 



158 



UPSTAIRS HALL 
2.06 




later paint layers 



canvas layer 



original paint layer 



Figure B.34 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.06-3 illustrating 

the original orange-red paint and subsequent paint and canvas layers in the 
upstairs hall. Magnification 25X. 



159 



BATHROOM 
2.08 




Figure B.35 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.08-1 illustrating 
original finish plaster and early paint layers in the bathroom. The original paint 
layer is not believed to be present. Magnification 25X. 



160 



BEDROOM 
2.09 




later plaster layer 
later paint layer 

original paint layer 



original finish plaster 



Figure B.36 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.09-1 illustrating 
original orange paint layer and later plaster campaign in this bedroom. 
Magnification SOX. 




canvas layer 



many later paint layers 



Figure B.37 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.09-1 illustrating 
later paint and canvas layers in this bedroom. Magnification 25X. 



161 




ater paint layers 
original paint layer 



original finish plaster 



FiaureB 38 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.10-1 i>";f at'^S 
Sal piaster and original orange layer and many subsequent pamt layers m 
the closet. Magnification 25X. 



162 



SEWING ROOM CLOSET 
2.11 




Fiaure B 39 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.11-1 illustrating 

ordinal pfaster and original green and subsequent paint layers. Mag. 25X. 




Figure B.40 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.1 1-2 mustra^ting a 



later 



plas^: layeXTnd r;.erp';rn. Tyers in .he sewing roon, Cose.. Mag. 25X. 



163 



SEWING ROOM 
2.12 




Figure B.41 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.12-2 illustrating 

the original finish plaster and original green paint layer in the sewing room. 
Magnification SOX. 



164 



SEWING ROOM 
2.12 





»:<• 


later paint layers 


iww-jimr >-*-y^ nw^wwm _ ^■. 




*>- 




later plaster layer 


-'».>* . ■ - • * 


"»; 


paint layers 




m 




-*'^' '^ 




\ 


i 




original finish coat 


^^B_J^^lI__ 


1 


\ 

scratch coat 



Figure B.42 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 2.12-1 illustrating 
original and later plaster campaign in the sewing room. Magnification 25X. 



165 



HALL CLOSET 
2.13 




ater paint layers 
original paint layer 



original finish plaster 



Figure B.43 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 1.13-1 illustrating 
finish plaster and original green paint layer in the hall closet on the second floor. 
Magnification 25X. 



166 



ATTIC 
3.03 




Figure B.44 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 3.03-1 illustrating the 
sand-float plaster and original paint in the attic. Magnification SOX. 




Figure B.45 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 3.03-1 illustrating 
the original finish in the attic. Magnification 25X. 



167 



THIRD FLOOR DINING AREA 
3.07 





current paint layer 



white paint layer 



primer 



wood paneling 



Figure B.46 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 3.07-3 illustrating the 
recent wood paneling and later paint layers. Magnification 25X. 




Figure B.47 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 3.07-4 illustrating 

paint layers on the third floor dining room baseboard. Magnification SOX. 



PLAY ROOM 



3.08 



■M W m. ' ilMi{.Wi»gW>^-'=»^ .J?'^^'^*r ■:^^'^^ 



*\later white paint layer 
green paint layer 




Figure B.48 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 3.08-1 illustrating 
the interior window and door window finish in the play room, east elevation. 
Magnification 25X. 




white paint layer 
brown paint layer 



5 layers of white paint 



wood substrate 



Figure B.49 Cross-sectional photomicrograph of sample 3.08-2 illustrating 
the paint layers on the ceiling joists in the play room. Magnification 25X, 



169 



APPENDIX C 
Pigment Dispersions 



170 



PIGMENT DISPERSIONS 







Figure C.1 Photomicrograph of dispersed pigment from sample 

1.04-1 (living room). Sample is optically similar to chrome green. 
Magnification 200X. 




Figure C.2 Photomicrograph of McCrone reference sample of 

chrome green pigments. Magnification 200X. 



171 



PIGMENT DISPERSIONS 




Figure C.3 Photomicrograph of dispersed pigments from the 

dining room sample 1.12-1. Sample is similar to burnt sienna. 
Magnification 100X. 




Figure C.4 Photomicrograph of McCrone reference sample of burnt 
sienna pigments. Magnification 100X. 



172 




Figure Photomicrograph of particle extracted from metallic layer of 
sample 1.04-6. (Living room bronzing powder.) Particle is possibly 
copper. Magnification 100X. 



173 



Appendix D 
Scanning Electron Microscopy 



174 



s-ray Display 1 




Figure D.1 EDS spectrum for sample 1.01-5 indicating elements present in the 
vestibule paint layers. 



175 




Figure D.2 Electron dot map of sample 1.01-5 Indicating the 
presence of iron in the original brown paint layer in the 
vestibule. The concentration of blue dots shows the amount of 
iron in the original paint layer, suggesting the presence of 
yellow ochre and umber. 



176 



I-LkV C.MpLrfV 1 




V 101 ^ Oil 



f.H 






i( ) 



JJ.O 



^E^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^S^^^^B 



7JE \V 



EO.C 



Figure D.3 EDS spectrum of sample 1.03-5 indicating elements present 
in the original paint layers and the sand-float plaster in the hall. 



177 




Figure D.4 Electron dot map for sample 1.03-5 indicating concentrations 
of calcium, barium, and iron In the original paint layers in the hall 
suggestive of barite, whiting, goethite and yellow ochre. There is a higher 
concentration of calcium in the hall sample than in the living room. 



178 



Z-ray Display 1 



— J I .f»4_l_l>ni 



..} 



iM^^-cyii 



736 F3 






Figure D.5 EDS spectrum for sample 1.04-1 indicating the elements present 
in the sand-float plaster and original green paint layer in the living room. 



179 




Figure D.6 Electron dot map of sample 1 .04-1 indicates the presence of 
barium and iron in the original paint layer in the living room suggestive of 
barite, Prussian blue, and yellow ochre. No concentrations of quartz were 
detected here. 



180 



x-ray Display 1 



si 



^ i.04_7_002 




^^^ilfv/t^.,J^^.... 



0.0 



s.o 



10. 
kcY 



15.0 



20.0 



Figure D.7 EDS spectrum for sample 1.04-7 indicating the elements present in 
the plaster and the decorative ochre paint layer in the living room. 



181 




Figure D.8 Electron dot map of sample 1.04-7 indicating the 

presence of calcium, barium, and iron, suggestive of whiting, barite, 
and yellow ochre in the original ochre paint layer in the living room. 



182 



x-rap Display 1 


J 


: 


— ^ 112_1_001 




rm F3 


i 












c 



i r 


si 
1 ^ f"" 








'■\ 


iKJ^ 


1 1 Ci i llfl 


Fe 






or 

Jo 


.0 s.o 


10.0 


15.0 


1 

20.0 




kcY 




















HIHIIHM^ > 



Figure D.9 EDS for sample 1.12-1 indicating the elements present in the 

original red paint layer in the dining room. 



183 




Figure D.10 Electron dot map for sample 1.12-1 indicating the presence of 
iron and barium in the original red paint layer in the dining room, suggestive of 
burnt sienna. 



184 



X-rav DiBDlay 1 




■/ \ 12_5_00i 



'^^rv*t^'vA«'»5-^»*A.^^ 



690 rs 



irt.fl 



— « — 

i.s.n 



Figure D.11 EDS spectrum for sample 1.12-5 indicating the elements present 
in the metallic paint layer and the subsequent red paint layer. 



185 




Figure D.12 Electron dot map of sample 1.12-5 indicates the presence of 
copper and zinc in the bronzing powder and iron in the red paint layer in the 
dining room. Iron is suggestive of burnt sienna. 



186 



x-ray Display 1 


1 






— v' 2.0i_2_00i 


IMIU F3 




\tfiy' 










" 1 "i" ■" 




Jo.o 

1 *mmiHBH 


S.O 


10. J 15. « 
kcv 


20.0 



Figure D.13 EDS for sample 2.01-2 indicating elements present in the master 
bedroom paint layers. 



187 




Figure D.14 Electron dot map for sample 2.01-2 indicating the presence 
of calcium in the original master bedroom paint layer and lead in all later 
paint layers. No colored pigments were identified in the original layer. The 
original layer may have whiting as a white colorant. White lead may have 
been used in many later layers. 



X-raj' Display 1 



— ^ 2.12_2_002 






|U"4.>^^^L^ 



pb 



0.0 



s.o 



10. ij 



15.0 



20 . « 



Figure D.15 EDS spectrum for sample 2.12-2 indicating elements present in 
the original paint layer in the sewing room. 



189 




Figure D.16 Electron dot map of sample 2.12-1 indicating 

concentrations of iron and a great deal of calcium in the original paint 
layer in the sewing room. This is suggestive of the presence of earth 
pigments such as yellow ochre and whiting as a white pigment. 



190 



APPENDIX E 
Stratigraphy Sheets 



191 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.01-1 



Room: Vestibule 



Sample Location: behind top of mirror, west wall 



Sample removed by: F.G. M. 
Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of removal: ! 1/19/99 



Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: builder's paper from construction of wall 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: paper 



Photomicrograph: no 



Film: 



Photograph number: 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



Summary: material from addition of wall between 1.0 land 1.02 



192 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 



1.01-2 



Room: 



Vestibule 



Sample Location: Behind large mirror on west wall 



Sample removed by: F. G. M 
Sample examined by: Z.W. 



Date of removal: 11/19/99 



Date of examination: 1 /6/00 



Information regarding sample: example of original plaster finish in the house 
Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: l_ 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. Rough scratch coat 

2. smooth white plaster 
3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: good rep. sample of plaster 



COMMENTS 

variety of colors-gray, tan, yellow 
Fine chalky particles, some variation 



193 



Heller House 



Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.0-3 



Room: Vestibule 



Sample Location: above mirror, behind wood rail, west wall 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: ! 1 / 19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: canvas form after original paint layer 

Magnification: Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: canvas 



Photomicrograph: no 



Film: 



Photograph number: 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



194 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.01-4 



Room: Vestibule 



Sample Location: top of baseboard north wall, east of double door 
Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/ 19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: sampled to find original vyood finish 

Magnification: Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: no 



Film: 



Photograph number: 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



195 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 10 1-5 



Room: 



Vestibule 



Sample Location: inside closet southwest . near baseboard 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/99 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: plaster and paint sampled for orig finish 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 3.4 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1. PLASTER 

2. YELLOW 

3. BROWN 

4. TAN 

5. TAN 

6. TAN 

7. TAN 

8. WHITE 

9. BROWN 
lO.WHITE 
11. WHITE 

12. LIGHT GREEN 

13.WH1TE 

14. 

15. 

Summary: original finish and primer and many later layers 



PRIMER 
ORIGINAL, YELLOW PIGMENTS EVIDENT 



196 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.01-6 



Room: Vestibule 



Sample Location: inside closet south side, behind baseboard 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 3/ 1 1 /OO 



Sample examined by:_ 



ZW 



Date of examination: 3/15/00 



Information regarding sample: sampled for confirm, of original layer 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Fuji 200 



Photograph number: 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. 


PLASTER 


2. 


YELLOW 


3. 


BROWN 


4. 


TAN 


5. 


" 


6. 


" 


7. 


OFF-WHITE 


8. 


" 


9. 


" 


10. 


TAN 


11. 




12. 




13. 




14. 




15. 





COMMENTS 



PRIMER 
ORIGINAL 



Summary: good sample illustrating original finish 



197 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.02-1 



Room: Reception Room 



Sample Location: behind switch plate o n pillar, north side 

Sample removed by: ^W Date of removal: 11 / 19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original protected wood finish 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: no 



Film: 



_ Photograph number: 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary 



STRATIGRAPHY 

WOOD 

SOME RESINOUS MATERIAL 



COMMENTS 



no wax evident 



198 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.02-2 



Room: 



Reception Room 



Sample Location: window sash above handle (pullK south wall 

Sample removed by: ^W Date of removal: 11/19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original finish, may have been stripped 
Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 
Photomicrograph: ves 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 12,13 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW -WHITE PRIMER 

3. LIGHT GREEN 

4. DARK GREEN 

5. WHITE 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: original finish remains 



COMMENTS 

SUBSTRATE 



199 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.02-3 . Room: Reception Room 

Sample Location: behind radiator, north wall 



Sample removed by: ^W Date of removal: 11 / 19/99 



Sample examined by:_ZW Date of examination: 1/6/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original finish, hads original canvas, 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: canvas 

Photomicrograph: _^es Film: Kodak Photograph number: 15 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

l._ CANVAS ROUGH BROWN 

2. MINT GREEN 

3. WHITE 

4. ROUGH WHITE 

5. PINK/RED/CLAY 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: no original paint found 



200 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.02-4 



Room: Reception 



Sample Location: above entry north wa ll, near east comer 

Sample removed by: ^W Date of removal: 3/ 11 /OO 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 3/15/00 

Information regarding sample: looking for origin al finish 

Magnification: 50X. 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: none 



Photomicrograph: ves 



Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 11,12 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. BROWN-ORANGE 

2. TAN 

3. TAN 

4. OFF-WHITE 

5. WHITE 

6. CREAM 

7. SALMON 
8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: probably original finish present here 



COMMENTS 



201 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.03-1 



Room; Hall 



Sample Location: West side of double doors under hardware plate 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 1 1 / 1 9 / 00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/7/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original wood finish 

Magnification: 100 Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: none 



Film: 



Photograph number: 



1. _ 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

_WOOD SUBSTRATE 
CLEAR LAYER 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



202 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.03-2 



Room: Hall 



Sample Location: east wall, behind baseboard 



Sample removed by: ZW 



Date of removal: 11/ 19/00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1 /6/00 



Information regarding sample: protected drip of orig paint 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: sand-float plaster 



Photomicrograph: ves 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 26. 27 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. SAND-FLOAT PLASTER 

2. ORANGE PAINT LAYER 

3. DIRT LAYER 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 

TAN, GREY, ORANGE SAND 
YELLOW, RED, BROWN PARTICLES 



Summary: good example of original finish 



203 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.03-4 



Room: Hall 



Sample Location: behind switch plate, south wall, near D.R. 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1 /6/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for gold original 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 17.18 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. 


WHITE 


2. 


ORANGE 


3. 


RED 


4. 


CANVAS 


5. 




6. 




7. 




8. 




9. 




10. 




11. 




12. 




13. 




14. 




15. 





COMMENTS 



PLASTER 



DIRECTLY OVER RED 



Summary: matches dining room red 



204 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.03-5 



Room: Hall 



Sample Location: behind switch plate, south wall, near dining room 
Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/ 19/00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1 /7/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for gold original 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 20 Photograph number: 21.22 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. 


SAND FLOAT PLASTER 


2. ORANGE 


3. 


DARK GREEN 


4. 


CANVAS 


5. 


MEDIUM GREEN 


6. 


LIGHT GREEN 


7. 


DARK GREEN 


8. 


PEACHY TAN 


9. 


TAN 


10. 


LIGHT BROWN 


11. 


PEACHY TAN 


12. 


CANVAS 


13. 


MED. GREEN 


14. 


OFF-WHITE 


15. 


GOLD 


Summary: original finish 



COMMENTS 



original finish is orange with green over to match living room 



205 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.04-1 Room: Living room 



Sample Lxjcation: drop ceiling near southeast corner by light opening 
Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: ! 1 / 19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/8/00 

Information regarding sample: original finish existing 



Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 21,22 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. SAND-FLOAT PLASTER 

2. THIN GREEN LAYER PIGMENTS VISIBLE ANDREFLECTIVEMATERL\L 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: original living room finish 

206 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.04-2 



Room: living room 



Sample Location: window sash south side, under pull 

Sample removed by: _ZW Date of removal: 11 / 19/00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/9/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original sash finish 



Magnification: SOX 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: ves 



1. _ 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

_WOOD 

TAN-LIGHT YELLOW 
GREEN 
LIGHTER GREEN 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 24_ 



COMMENTS 



PRIMER 



Summary: no evidence of varnish here 



207 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.04-4 



Room: living room 



Sample Location: window sash, unprotected .south wall, second bay from west 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/99 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/9/00 



Information regarding sample: comparing to protected sample 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak 200 Photograph number: 1.2. 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1. 


WOOD 


2. 


WHITE 


3. 


GREEN 


4. 


DARK LAYER 


5. 




6. 




7. 




8. 




9. 




10. 




11. 




12. 




13. 




14. 




15. 




Summary: 



PRIMER 



208 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.04-5 Room: living room 

Sample Location: behind light sconce on wall 



Sample removed by: RF Date of removal:. 



Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/12/00 

Information regarding sample: sample taken by Robert Furhoff 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 4,5 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. _ SAND-FLOAT PLASTER 

2. GREEN ORIGINAL FINISH 

3. BROWN CANVAS 

4. DARK-, MEDIUM GREEN 

5. MEDIUM GREEN 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: original and many later layers 

209 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.04-6 Room: living room 

Sample Location: strip between wood moldings 



Sample removed by: RF 



Date of removal: 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/13/00 



Information regarding sample: decorative band between strips 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 
Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 6.7 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

SAND-FLOAT PLASTER 

GOLDEN YELLOW 

GOLD 

MEDIUM GREEN 



COMMENTS 



PRIMER? 



Summary: gold used in this area 



210 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.04-7 



Room: living room 



Sample location: transition between wall corner and ceiling banding 
Sample removed by: _RF Date of removal: 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: SOX 



Sample substrate: plaster 
Photomicrograph: yes 





STRATIGRAPHY 


1. 


SAND-FLOAT PLASTER 


2. 


DARK-MEDIUM GREEN 


3. 


ORANGE/CLAY 


4. 


DARK GREEN 


5. 


CANVAS 


6. 


LIGHT GREEN 


7. 


DARK GREEN 


8. 


TAN-BUFF 


9. 


THIN LIGHT BROWN 


10. 


LIGHT TAN 


11. 


CREAMY WHITE 


12. 


LIGHT TAN 


13. 


CREAMY WHITE 


14. 


LIGHT TAN 


15. 


CHALKY GREEN 



Summary: orange layer is original 



Date of examination: 1/12/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 8J_ 



COMMENTS 



SIMILAR TEXTURE AS 2 



211 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.04-8 



Room: living room 



Sample Location: south bay ceiling 

Sample removed by: _^ Date of removal:. 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/13/00 



Information regarding sample: original finish 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



1. _ 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

_SAND PLASTER 
MEDIUM GREEN 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 11/12 



COMMENTS 

COLORFUL 
THIN LAYER, WITH CLEAR SAND 



Summary: original finish 



212 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Nnmher: 1.04-10 Room: living room 



Sample Location: canvas laver ove r original paint 



Sample removed by: JRF Date of removal:. 



Sample examined by:^W Date of examination: 1/14/00 

Information regarding sample: canvas sample 



Magnification: 502< Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 

Sample substrate: canvas ^ 



Photomicrograph: no Film: Photograph number: 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. DARK GREEN 

2. WHITE AND BROWN CANVAS 

3. DARK GREEN 
4. LIGHT GREEN 

5. DARK GREEN . 

6. BUFF/TAN 

7. LIGHT BROWN 

8. TAN 

9. OFF-WHITE/ CREAM 

lO.TAN/BUFF 

11. MEDIUM GREEN CHALKY 

12.LIGHTYELLL0W 

13. 

14. 

15. 



Summary: 



213 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number:i^06J^ Room: porch 



Sample Location: window frame, south door sidelight 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/20 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/14/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: wood . 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: kodak 200 gold Photograph number: 16 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. WOOD 

2. GREEN-YELLOW 

3. LIGHT TAN /PEACH 

4. LGHT BROWN 
5. DIRT 

6. LIGHT BROWN 

7. DIRT 

8. PEACH-TAN 

9. DIRT 

10. PEACH-TAN 

11. DIRT 

12. GREY TAN 

13. GREY TAN 

14. PEACH-CREAM 

15."' 



Summary: 



214 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-2 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: transom panel above door, south side 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11 / 20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 18. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. ROUGH WHITE PLASTER 

2. CREAM-PEACH 

3. 14 LAYERS OF PEACH BROWN 

4. WHITE 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



215 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-3 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: enframement south door 



Sample removed by: FGM 
Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 



Sample substrate: 



wood 



Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Date of examination: 11/ 14/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 20.21 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1. WOOD 

2. TAN 

3. TAN 
4.WHITE 

5. PEACH /TAN 

6. WHITE 
7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



VERY THIN 



Summary: 



216 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-4 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: bottom fascia board below window sill, east wall 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by:..ZW Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



STRATIGRAPHY 



I.WOOD 

2. LIGHT BROWN X4 

3. PEACH-YELLOW 
4.LIGHT BROWN 

5. DIRT 

6. BUTTER YELLOW 

7. WHITE 

8. PEACH-YELLOW 

9. WHITE 
10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 22_ 



COMMENTS 



RED PIMENTS 



Summary: 



217 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-5 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: transom bead on hinge bot tom, frame east 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by:^W Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 



Sample .tjuhstrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 23.24 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. LIGHT BROWN 

3. DIRT 

4. LIGHT BROWN 

5. DIRT 

6. LIGHT BROWN 

7. DIRT 

8. LIGHT BROWN 

9. DIRT 
10. TAN 
11. DIRT 
12. TAN 

13. LIGHT BROWN 

14. BUTTER 

15. DIRT, WHITE, YELLOW-PEACH 



COMMENTS 



NO PRIMER EVIDENT 



Summary: 



218 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-6 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: fixed casement window fra me on east wall 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by:^W Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Information regarding sample: difficult to read sepa rate layers here 

Magnification: Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 24.25 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. TAN/ YELLOW 

3. " 
4." 

5. " 

6. TAN 

7. " 

8. PEACH/YELLOW-TAN 

9. LIGHT BROWN 

10. BUTTER 

1 1 . WHITE 

12. PEACH /YELLOW 
13. 

14. 
15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



219 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-7 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: beaded board ceiling , under gypboard over plaster 
Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: ! 1 /20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 3.4 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. TAN-OFF-WHITE 
4." 

5. PEACH-YELLOW 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



PRIMER 



DARKER THAN #2 



Summary: different than other samples 



220 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-8 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: window stile 



Sample removed by: FGM 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: . 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: ves 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. LIGHT BROWN 

4. DIRT 

5. LIGHT BROWN 

6. DIRT 

7. LIGHT BROWN 

8. DIRT 

9. LIGHT BROWN 

10. DIRT 

11. BUTTER 

12. DIRT 
13.WHITE 
14.YELL0W-PEACH 
15. 



Date of removal: 11/20/99. 



Date of examination: 1/ 14/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 3^ 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



221 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-9 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: screen door stop, porch exterior over door 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11 / 20/ 99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Information regarding sample:_ 
Magnification: 



Mounted or unmounted: unmounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 5.6 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. TAN/OFF WHITE 

3. TAN 
4.PEACH/0FFWHITE 

5. WHITE 

6. TAN-GREY 

7. DARK GREY 

8. YELLOW TAN 

9. " 

10. BUTTER 

1 1 .PEACH-YELLOW TAN 

12." 

13. BUTTER 

14.WHITE 

15. WHITE, PEACH-YELLOW 



COMMENTS 



NO PRIMER 



Summary: 



222 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.06- 10 Room: porch 

Sample Location: exterior porch original art glass stile 



Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/ 14/00 



Information regarding sample:. 



Magnification: Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: wood 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 7,8 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 



1. WOOD 

2. ORANGE-YELLOW TAN 

3. TAN 

4. DIRT 

5. TAN 

6. DIRT 

7. TAN 

8. DIRT 
9. TAN 
10. DIRT 

ll.LIGHT GREY TAN 
12. DARK GREY 

13. PEACH-YELLOW 

14. LIGHT BROWN 

15.TAN, WHITE, PEACH-YELLOW 

Summary: 

223 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06- 1 1 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: storm case ment, exterior 

Sample removed by: _FGM Date of removal: 11 / 20/ 99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 



Sample substratei___wood_ 



Photomicrograph: ves 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. LIGHT BROWN 

4. LIGHT BROWN 

5. YELLOW TAN 
6. 

7. LIGHT BROWN 

8. DIRT 

9. WHITE 

10. YELLOW /PEACH 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film- Vodak gold 200 Photograph number: 9,10 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



224 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.06-12 



Room: porch 



Sample Location: exterior door frame under screen door stop 

Sample removed by: FGM Date of removal: 11/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/14/00 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: 



wood 



Photomicrograph: ves 



_ Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 11.12 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. TAN 

4. LIGHT BROWN 

5. LIGHT BROWN 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



Summary: 



225 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.08-1 Room: servant hall 



Sample Location: corner of baseboard and trim next to basement door near elevator 
Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/99 



Sample examined by:_ZW Date of examination: 1/15/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster . . 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 1,2,3 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. PLASTER 

2. PRIMER 

3. RED/ ORANGE PAINT 
4. 

5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: 

226 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.08-4 Room: servant hall 

Sample Location: south wall behind radiator 



Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/15/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 4^5 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. YELLOW-TAN 

2. CREAM 

3. " 
4." 

5. DIRT 

6. CREAM 

7. '■ 

8. " 
9." 

10. DIRT 
11. TAN 

12. TAN 

13. LIGHT PEACH 

14. BRIGHT GREEN 

15. MINT GREEN, WHITE 

Summary: 

227 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Room: pantry 



Sample Number: 1.11-1 

Sample Location: next to kitrhen door, behin d b ase board west wall 
Sample removed by: .^W Date of removal: 11/19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/20/00 



Information regarding sample: new construction 



Magnification: 25X 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: ves 



Film: Fuii 200 Photograph number: 6,7. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. PLASTER 

2. CANVAS -BROWN 

3. WHITE 

4. PINK/ CORAL 
5. 

6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



MODERN LAYER 



Summary: 



228 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.12-1 Room: dining room 



Sample Location: east wall, under switch plate, between hall and dr alcove 
Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/ 19/99 



Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/16/00 

Information regarding sample: original paint and plaster 



Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 8.9, 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 



1 . SAND-FLOAT PLASTER 

2. DEEP RED LAYER 

3. LIGHT PINK 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: original finish 

229 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.12-4 



Room: dining room 



Sample Location: window sash closest to pantry west wall 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/16/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original window finish evidence 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: Fuji 200 



_Photograph number: 10.11 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1. WOOD 

2. PEIMER 

3. LIGHT GREEN 
4. DARK GREEN 
5. BLACK 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



VARNISH? 



Summary: 



230 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.12-5 



Room: dining room 



Sample Location: alcove, between two wood strips south wall 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/ 19/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/16/00 



Information regarding sample: metallic layer 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 12.13 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. ROUGH SAND-FLOAT PLASTR 

2. YELLOW 

3. GOLD 

4. RED VERY DARK 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



PRIMER 



Summary: evidence of decorative scheme 

231 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.13-1 Room: telephone room 

Sample Location: north and east wall 



Sample removed by: ZW 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of removal: 11/19/00 

Date of examination: 1/16/00 



Information regarding sample: whole history 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: 

Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: fuii 200 Photograph number: 14.15 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. SCRATCH COAT 

2. WHITE SMOOTH FINSH PLASTER 

3. LIGHT PINK 

4. OFF WHITE 

5. LIGHT PEACH 

6. CANVAS 

7. LIGHT PEACH 

8. GREY TAN 

9. BEIGE 

10. " 

11. " 

12. OFF-WHITE 
13.TAN 

14. 
15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



232 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.14-1 



Room: back hall 



Sample Location: exterior sidefeasO bathroom door, behind hardware 
Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal:l 1/ 19/00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/16/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original wood finish 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 
Photomicrograph: ves 



Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 18.19 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WOOD 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



233 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.14-2 



Room: back hall 



Sample Location: north wall next to elevator and porch behind baseboard 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/19/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/17/00 



Information regarding: sample:possible elevator date finishes 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: fuji 200 Photograph number: 10.11 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WHITE PLASTER 

2. TAN-PEACH 

3. DIRT 

4. TAN-PEACH 

5. DIRT 

6. TAN-PEACH 

7. CREAM 

8. BRIGHT GREEN 
9. 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



COMMENTS 

TRANSLUCENT 



THICK 



Summary: 



234 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 1.14-3 



Room: back hall 



Sample Location: south wall above glass window 



Sample removed by: ZW 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of removal: 3/11/00 

Date of examination: 3/15/00 



Information regarding sample: looking for original back hall finish 

Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: fuji 200 Photograph number: 19,20 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



STRATIGRAPHY 

ROUGH PLASTER 
ORANGE-BROWN-RED 
OFF-WHITE 
WHITE 



COMMENTS 



Summary: original finish 



235 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample N.,mhPr- 1.14-4 Room: back hall 

Sample Location: above elevator, north wa ll 

Sample removed by: ^W Date of removal: 3/11/00 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 25X 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: ves 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WHITE PLASTER 

2. LIGHT YELLOW 

3. PEACH 

4. WHITE 

5. DIRT 

6. OFF WHITE 

7. LIGHT PEACH 

8. OFF WHITE 

9. WHITE 

10. YELLOW-GOLDEN 

11. WHITE 

12. BRIGHT GREEN 
13. 

14. 
15. 



Date of examination: 3/15/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: fuii 200 Photograph number: 1,2,3 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



236 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 1.1 5-1 Room: bathroom 

Sample Location: north wall by stair under rail 



Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 3/11/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 3/15/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 3, 4 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. PEACH 

2. WHITE 

3. LIGHT PEACH 

4. DIRT 
5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: 

237 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.01-1 



Room: master bedrooin 



Sample Lx3cation: exterior window stile sample, south wall 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 3/1 1/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 3/15/00 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 25X 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 17, 18 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. TAN 

3. DIRT 

4. YELLOW-TAN 

5. DIRT 

6. PEACH TAN 

7. CREAM-OFF WHITE 

8. YELLOW TAN 

9. CREAM TAN 

10. DARK GREEN 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



238 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.01-2 



Room: master bedroom 



Sample Location: east wall south east comer by baseboard 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 3/ 1 1 /OO 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 3/16/00 



Information regarding sample:^ 
Magnification: 25X 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: fuii 200 Photograph number: 19.20, 21 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. " 

8. ' 

9. ' 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



PLASTER 
GREEN BLUE 
LIGHT BLUE 
BLUE/AZURE 
MANY LAYERS 
TAN 



WHITE 
LIGHT BLUE 
BRIGHT BLUE 



COMMENTS 



SHINY 



Summary: 



239 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 
Architectural Conservation Laboratory- 
University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 2.04-1 Room: bedroom 



Sample Location: south wall, east of radiator 



Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11 / 20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/16/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 22,23 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 



1. WHITE PLASTER 

2. LIGHT PEACH 

3. LIGHTER PEACH 

4. BROWN-RED 

5. PINK 

6. TAN 

7. " 

8. " 

9. CREAM-PEACH 

10. " 

11. LIGHT GREY 

12. DARK RED 

13. LIGHT YELLOW 

14. CANVAS 

15. WHITE , BLUE -GREEN GREY (PRESENT ) 

Summary: 

240 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.05-1 



Room: bedroom 



Sample Location: north wall, cracked plaster 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: ! 1/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/16/00 



Information regarding sample: has different thin plaster layer 

Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 24, 1. 2 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1 . WHITE PLASTER 

2. THIN YELLOW 

3. YELLOW-WHITE 
4. PEACH WHITE 

5. CORAL PINK 

6. MILKY PINK 

7. CORAL PINK 

8. LIGHT PEACH 

9. LIGHT PINK 

10. LIGHT PEACH 

11. CORAL PINK 

12. TAN-YELLOW 

13. " 

14. TAN-GREY 

15. LIGHT TAN, " , OFF-WHITE, LIGHT TAN, LIGHT PEACH, " , OFF-WHITE, 

WHITE, LIGHT YELLOW, WHITE LIGHT YELLOW, LIGHT GREY 



241 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.05-2 



Room: bedroom 



Sample Location: window, exterior sash, south wall 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 25X 



Sample substrate: wood 
Photomicrograph: yes 



Date of examination: 1/17/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 3.4 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. LIGHT CORAL PEACH 

3. DIRT 

4. OFF WHITE 

5. DIRT 

6. PEACH WHITE 

7. DIRT 

8. GREY-WHITE 

9. ORANGE-LIGHT BROWN 

lO.WHITE 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



242 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.05-3 



Room: bedroom 



Sample Location: wall field, cracked plaster .east wall 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/17/00 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 25 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: KODAK GOLD 200 Photograph number: 5.6 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WHITE PLASTER 

2. PEACH 

3. LIGHT PEACH 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



Summ.ary: 



243 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.05-4 



Room: BEDROOM 



Sample Location: west wall, above baseboard, where sap, occurs 

Sample removed by: ^W Date of removal :3/ii/00_ 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 25X 



Sample substrate: plaster 
Photomicrograph: yes 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. PLASTER 

2. CORAL-RED 

3. LIGHTER CORAL RED 
4. OFF WHITE 

5. LIGHT PEACH 

6. PINK 
7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



Date of examination: 3/16/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: fuii 200 Photograph number: 19.20 



COMMENTS 



THICKER 



Summary: 



244 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 2.06-1 Room: hall 



Sample Location: west wall, next to room 2.09. behind peeled canvas, above baseboard 
Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11 / 20 799 



Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/17/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: SOX Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 5.6 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. ROUGH PLASTER 

2. SMOOTH WHITE TRANSLUCENT PLASTER 

3. CORAL RED 
4. LIGHT CORAL 
5. OFF WHITE 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: plaster treatment changes form downstairs hall 

245 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.06-2 Room: Hall 

Sample Location: baseboard, west wall 



Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 3/11/00 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 3/17/00 

Information regarding sample: confirming original hall finish 



Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: finish plaster . 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: fuii 200 Photograph number: 11.12.13 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. PLASTER 

2. RED-CORAL 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: 

246 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.06-3 



Room: hall 



Sample Location: between windows in stairway where canvas is peeled 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 3/ 1 1 /OO 

Sample examined by: ZW _^ Date of examination: 3/17/00 



Information regarding sample:_ 
Magnification: 25X 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: fuii 200 



_ Photograph number: 3.4.5 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. PLASTER 

2. ORANGE 

3. OFF WHITE TAN PEACH 

4. CANVAS 

5. OFF WHITE-TAN PEACH 

6. LIGHT TAN PEACH 

7. LIGHT GREY 

8. OFF WHITE 

9. " 
10." 
11. " 

12. LIGHT BLUE 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



RED BLACK YELLOW PIGMENTS 



Summary: 



247 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 2.08-1 Room: bathroom 



Sample Location: north wall, where canvas was removed 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by:^W Date of examination: 1/17/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: PLASTER 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 5,6,7 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1 . OFF WHITE PLASTER 

2. LIGHT GREEN-BLUE 

3. LIGHT BLUE 
4. TAN 

5. LIGHT PEACH 

6. TAN 

7. YELLOW-TAN 

8. " 

9. OFF WHITE 
10." 

11. " 

12. " 

13. LIGHT BLUE 

14. OFF WHITE 

15. " , LIGHT BLUE GREY 

Summary: Sample is obscured, different in many areas 

248 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.09-1 



Room: bedroom 



Sample Location: south wall, by baseboard, northeas t comer 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11 / 20/ 99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: 25X • 



Sample substrate: plaster 
Photomicrograph: yes 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. PLASTER 

2. TRANSLUCENT GRAY 

3. YELLOW-ORANGE 

4. WHITE 

5. OFF WHITE 

6. GRAY 
7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



Date of examination: 1/18/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: Fuji 200 Photograph number: 15.16 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



249 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Room: dressing room 



Sample Number: 210-1 

Sample Location: above rail, next to built in. west wall 

Sample removed by: _ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/17/00 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 25X 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Kodak 200 Photograph number: 23,24 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WHITE/ OFF WHITE PLASTER 

2. OFF WHITE 

3. PEACH TAN 

4. WHITE 

5. YELLOW 

6. WHITE 

7. CREAM 

8. " 
9." 

10. " 

11. " 

12. TAN 

13. LIGHT GRAY 

14. LIGHT GRAY 

15. CREAM PEACH, CREAM, ", " , 



COMMENTS 

THIN 

RED PIGMENTS ORIGINAL? 



LIGHT GREEN, BRIGHT GREEN, WHITE 



250 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number:__^Ji^2 Room: closeL 

Sample Location: east w all above first rail 



Sample removed by: jm_ Date of removal: 11 /20/99 



Sample examined by:^W Date of examination: 1/18/00 

Information regarding sample:^ 



Magnification: 252C Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster . 



Photomicrograph: yes Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 1.2^ 



STRATIGRAPHY 



COMMENTS 



1. OFF-WHITE PLASTER 

2. MOSS GREEN 

3. LIGHT GREEN 
4." 

5." 

6. LIGHT BLUE 

7. TAN-PINK 

8. TAN-YELLOW 

9. OFF WHITE 

10. TAN-LIGHT BROWN 

1 1 . TAN PEACH 

12. WHITE 

13.WHITE PLASTER MODERN 

14. WHITE 

15. AZURE BLUE, DARK BLUE, MINT GREEN, BUTTER YELLOW 

Summary: 

251 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.12-1 Room: sewing room 

Sample Location: south wall above baseboard 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 1 1/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1 / 1 9 / 00 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 25X 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 3.4.5 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1 . ROUGH PLASTER 

2. SMOOTH OFF WHITE PLASTER 

3. LIGHT BLUE 

4. LIGHT GREEN 

5. GRAY WHITE PLASTER 

6. WHITE 

7. LIGHT MEDIUM GREEN 

8. OFF WHITE 
9. 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



252 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 2.13.-1 

Sample Location: north wall 



Sample removed by: ZW 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: SOX 



Sample substrate: plaster 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Room: closet 



Date of removal: 11/ 19/00 



Date of examination: 1/18/00 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 6,7 



- STRATIGRAPHY 

1. OFF WHITE PLASTER 

2. LIGHT BLUE 

3. OFF WHITE 

4. LIGHT ORANGE-TANGERINE 

5. OFF WHITE 

6. LIGHT TAN-PEACH 

7. OFF WHITE 
8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 

SOME SAND AND VOIDS 
LARGE BLUE PIMENTS 



Summary: 



253 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 3.03-1 Room: ATTIC HALL 



Sample Location: above stair, under window frame 



Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 

Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/20/00 

Information regarding sample: original finish 



Magnification: 25X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: plaster 

Photomicrograph: 25X Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 13.14 

STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. ROUGH SAND-FINISHED PLASTER 

2. MEDIUM GREEN WITH MORE TARANSPARENT GREEN ABOVE 

3. CHALKY WHITE-GREEN 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

Summary: original finish 

254 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 



3.07-1 



Room: 3^^ floor dining room 



Sample Location: beaded board insi de cabinet, north wall 

Sample removed by: _ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: 50X 



Sample substrate: w^ood 



Photomicrograph: ves 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WOOD 

2. OFF-WHITE 

3. WHITE 
4. 

5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



Date of examination: 1/20/00 



Mounted or unmounted: 



mounted 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 15,16 



COMMENTS 



Summary: 



255 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 3.07-3 



Room: 3'^'^ floor dining room 



Sample Location: wall field west wall, by baseboard 



Sample removed by: ZW 



Date of removal: 11 720/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/20/00 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: SOX 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: yes 



Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 17.18 



STRATIGRAPHY 

1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. WHITE 

4. OFF WHITE 

5. BRIGHT CORAL PINK 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 



CURRENT COLOR 



Summary: 



256 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Nnrr^hPr- 3.07-4 Room: 3^" flppr dining room 

Sample Location: baseboard on south side . 

Sample removed by: _ZW Date of removal: 11/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/18/00 



Information regarding sample: 
Magnification: SOX 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: ves Film: kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 19,20 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. LIGHT TAN 

4. DIRT 

5. CREAMY WHITE 

6. LIGHT GREEEN 

7. LIGHT PEACH 

8. WHITE 

9. WHITE 

10. WHITE 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



COMMENTS 



SOME ORANGE PIGMENTS 



Summary: 



257 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 



Sample Number: 3.08-1 



Room: play room 3'^'' floor 



Sample Location: east wall, wood trim around window 
Sample removed by: ZW 



Date of removal: 11/20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW 



Date of examination: 1/18/00 



Information regarding sample:. 
Magnification: SOX 



Mounted or unmounted: mounted 



Sample substrate: wood 



Photomicrograph: ves Film- knriak gold 200 Photograph number: 21,22,23 



STRATIGRAPHY 



1. WOOD 

2. YELLOW-TAN 

3. DARK GREEN 

4. WHITE 

5. OFF-WHITE 
6. 

7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



COMMENTS 

SUBSTRATE 
PRIMER 



Summary: 



258 



HELLER HOUSE 

Interior Finishes Analysis Sample Sheet 

Architectural Conservation Laboratory 

University of Pennsylvania 

Sample Number: 3.08-2 Room: play room, 3^^ floor 

Sample Location: ceiling joist south end, western ioist 

Sample removed by: ZW Date of removal: 11 /20/99 



Sample examined by: ZW Date of examination: 1/18/00 

Information regarding sample: 



Magnification: 50 X Mounted or unmounted: mounted 

Sample substrate: wood 

Photomicrograph: yes Film: Kodak gold 200 Photograph number: 23.24 



STRATIGRAPHY COMMENTS 

1. WOOD 

2. OFF WHITE 

3. LIGHT TAN 

4. OFF WHITE 

5. LIGHT TAN 

6. OFF WHITE 

7. DARK BROWN 

8. WHITE 
9. 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 

Summary: 

259 



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269 



INDEX 



Adier, Dankmar, 28 

alcove, 106 

Architectural Conservation 

Laboratory (ACL), 58 
Archival and Site Documentation, 62 
art glass window, 7, 22, 27 
Arts and Crafts movement, 30, 47,58 
ASTM standards, 119 
Athenaeum of Philadelphia, 53 
autofluorescence, 84, 86 
axis, 6, 30, 31,72, 75 

Barcilon, Victor and Danielle, 27 

barite, 99. 103, 122 

Beachey House, 35 

Beaux Aries, 30 

beeswax, 38, 90, 96, 122, 125 

BIckett, Francis, 26 

binder, 80, 84, 89, 94, 99 

binding media, 80, 99 

Bischoff, Judith J., 37, 38 

Bock, Richard, 4, 12 

Bradford, Lewis, 27 

Bromley, Judith, 1, 27, 64 

bronzing powder, 72, 74, 104, 107, 

110 
Brown, Charles A. House, 34,41 
building permit, 25 
burnt sienna, 122 

calcimine, 33, 34, 37, 39,40, 41, 42, 

46,50, 51,52, 53,54 
calcium carbonate, 51,54 
casein, 33,41,49,52, 90 
casement window, 123 
census data, 25 

Charles A. Brown House, 34, 41 
Charnley House, 28 
Chicago Arts and Crafts Society, 30 
chrome green, 99 
chrome yellow, 99 
city directory, 25 
colonette, 5, 1 1 , 27 



Colonial Revival, 44 
color, 2, 18,27, 31 
color matching, 76 
color palette, 40 
color scheme, 123 
copper, 104, 106, 110 
corn starch, 90 
Craftsman, The, 43 
Cross section, 68, 76, 80 

data sheets, 58 
decorative banding, 72 
Decorator and Furnisher, 43 
dining room alcove, 72, 74 
dispersed pigments, 99, 100 
distemper, 36, 38, 40, 42, 49, 50, 

51,52, 54, 80,85,88,90,92,94, 

120, 126, 127 

EDS, 98, 104 

electron dot map, 98, 113, 108, 110 
elevator, 15, 20 

Epstein, David and Catherine, 27 
Expert Calciminer, The, 50, 52, 53, 
54 

Fallingwater, 31 
Farrow & Ball, 126 
F.B. Henderson House, 32 
filter cube, 84, 85, 86 
finish classification, 80 
finish coat, 114, 116, 118, 119, 121 
finish color, 72 
finishes analyses, 31 
finish investigation and sampling, 64 
finish sample list, 65 
fire damage, 17 
first floor plan, 8 

fluorescence microscopy, 84, 85, 88 
fluorochromes, 85 
Frank Lloyd Wright Archives, 10,15, 
17 



270 



Frank Lloyd Wright Building 

Conservancy, 1 
frieze, 4, 6, 12,32,33, 35,37,41 
FTIR, 88, 89, 90, 92, 94, 96, 97, 98, 

99, 101, 103 
Furhoff, Robert, 31, 32, 33, 34,36, 
37,41,42,59 

Gale House, 37,42 
Garella, Serafino, 2, 27 
Gas chromatography-mass 

spectroscopy, 90 
George Barton House, 37, 40, 41 
George C. Stockman Residence, 36, 

42 
goethite, 99 
Getty Research Institute Archives, 

17 
glue, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 80, 89, 90 
gum, 120, 127 
gum tragacanth, 53 
gypsum, 120, 122 

Hamburger, Jonas, 26 
Hanna House, 31 
Harlan House, 28 
Heller, Ida, 25, 26 
Heller, Isidore, 1,25 
Henderson House, 32 
Heurtley House, 38, 39, 41 
Historic American Building Survey, 

18 
Hollyhock House, 31 
The House Beautiful, 42,44, 45, 46, 

47 
Hyde Park, 3, 25 

infrared spectroscopy, 88, 89 

infrared spectrum, 89 

In-line house, 6 

I plan, 6 

IR spectroscopy, 88, 99 

John Vinci Architects, 9 



kitchen, 129 

Kremer Pigments, 127 

later layers, 125 

lime, 123 

LRSM, 98 

light standards, 13,15 

maiden, 12 

Mayer, Joseph, 26 

McCrone, 99, 103 

McFarlane, Charles, 26 

metallic layer, 104, 110, 111, 112, 

113 
Meyer May House, 36, 37 
micro-chemical spot testing, 98 
monitor roof, 4 
Munsell, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 76, 77, 

78,79 

oak, 13,15,18,36,58, 122, 125 
Oak Park, 29,30 
organics, 84, 85, 88, 89 

paint colors, 72, 77 

Painting and Decorating, 43, 46, 49, 

50,51 
paint layer documentation, 68 
particle size analysis, 119 
Peoria, 25 

Pherickson, Doug, 38, 39, 40, 41 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, 89 
pigment identification, 98, 122 
pine, 15 

plaster, 2, 4, 5, 17, 18, 114, 116, 
117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122 
play room, 17,24 
polarized light, 98, 99 
polysaccharides, 92 
porch, 15,20,27, 129 
prairie style, 38 
Price, Beth, 89 
protein, 85, 88, 90 
Prussian blue, 122 



271 



quartz, 99, 100, 101, 122, 123 



wallpaper, 45, 46, 47, 48 



recommendations for restoration, 

126 
red ochre, 107 
resin, 86, 90, 97 
restored fireplace, 23 
Robie House, 3 
Romanesque columns, 5, 6 
room description, 62 
Rose ofJherIco, 126 

sample numbering, 64 

sample types, 64 

sand float plaster, 32, 33, 35, 36, 
37,39,47,53,59,60,74,114, 
119, 120, 121, 122, 126 

scanning electron microscopy, 98, 

104, 108 

scratch coat, 114, 116, 118, 119, 
120 

secondary fluorescence, 85, 88 

second floor plan, 9 

SEM, 98, 104, 108, 122 

sieve analysis, 120 

Silsbee, Joseph Lyman 28 

solubility testing, 84, 96 

Spencer, Robert, 18,19 

starch, 52,90,92, 120, 127 

stereomicroscope, 32, 68, 76 

Stickley, Gustav, 43, 47, 58 

stratigraphy sheet, 69 

Sullivan, Louis, 3,4, 28 

The Eve of St. Agnes, 4 
third floor plan, 10 
trim, 31 
tungsten needle, 98 

ultraviolet light, 84 
University of Wisconsin, 27 

vehicle, 48 
vestibule, 15 



Ward W. Willits House, 33, 34, 41 
water-based paint, 40, 49, 53, 80, 

84,92,94, 120 
Watson, George, 26, 128 
wax, 90,96,97, 122, 127 
whiting, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 
window sash, 86, 122 
Wolf, Sayer, and Heller, 25 
Woodlawn Avenue, 3, 6, 17, 25, 26 
woodwork, 33, 34, 44, 45, 47 

X-ray diffraction, 98, 121 
XRD, 98, 121 

yellow ochre, 99, 122 

zinc, 104, 110 



272 



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FISHER 



OCT 2 5 ?.000 

UNiV. O? FcNNA. 



3 1198 02810 4839 



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